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Sporting and Rural 



Cheveley Estate 





Cheveley : Anglo-Saxon Period — Athelstan — Horse-breeding — Queen rifled 

— Edward the Confessor — Canute page i 

Early and Mediaeval Period — William I. — The Peche Family — The Pulteney 

Family — Free Warren 2 

Ditton : Canute — William I. — Ditton Valence — The Valence Family, Earls of 

Pembroke ... ... ... .. ... ... .. ... ... 3 

Ditton Camois 4 

Cheveley: Military Services from 1548 to 1640 5-9 

Rogues, Vagabonds, and Masterless Men 7 

Licensing and Corn Laws from 1631 to 1634 — Prices of Corn, &c. ... 10-13 

Ditton Valence : " The Links Beat " — Famous for Pheasants and Partridges — 

The Manor Acquired by Henry VIII. — Sir Giles Capel ... ... 14-16 

Cheveley : The Cotton Family — Sir Thomas Cotton — Surveys and Valuations 

in 1519 — Sir John Cotton — The Cambridge University Plate — Sir J. H. 

Cotton, Bart. — Sir Charles Cotton, Bart — Sir " Vinny " Cotton, Bart. 17-23 

Sir John Carlton, Bart.— Appointed Master of the Game at Newmarket — 

Turning Down and Preserving Game within the Verge — Action by 

Charles I. Thereon 23-26 

The Jermyn Family : Sir Thomas Jermyn — Appointed Master of the Game at 
Newmarket — Henry Lord Jermyn and Earl of St. Albans — Master of 
the Horse to Queen Henrietta Maria — Ambassador Extraordinary to 
Louis XIV. — Lord Chamberlain of the Household — Some Cheveley 

Warrants — The Royal Jewel House — More Cheveley Warrant Game 

and Fruit 2 °-37 

Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover — Master of the Horse to the Duke of York — His 
"opularity at Court — His Prowess in the Saddle — Rides and Wins a 
Match against Charles II. — Lord Dover and James II. — Cheveley Hall 

Synopsis of Contents. 

Looted — How a New Road was Made There — Lord Dover's Military 
Services — Sarsfield — Lord Dover Outlawed — The Cheveley Estate Seized 
by the Crown — Proceedings Thereon — Lord Dover Receives a Free 
Pardon— The Hearth Tax page 37-53 

Stonehall in Moulton : Richard Moody and Arthur Prince of Wales — Hawking 
at Partridges — George Moody's Hospitality — The Big Turnip — The 
Willys Family — The Davers Family ... ... ... ... 54~55 

Ditfcon Valence : The Coningsby Family — Playing Cards — The Tin ... 56-58 

Cheveley : The Seymour Family — Charles Sixth Duke of Somerset — His First 
Wife — Her First, Second, and Third Husbands — Her Vast Possessions — 
The Duke and James II.— The Duke and William III.— The Duke and 
Queen Anne — Master of the Horse — The Duke and George I. — " The 
Proud Duke " — The Duke and the Turf — The Duke's Racing Career — 
The Duke and the Palace — The Duke Buys the Cheveley Estate — The 
Duke's Stud — Origin of Ascot Races — The Judge's Chairs on Newmarket 
Heath 59-69 

Newmarket Cricket — Great Match for £1500 between Eton and AH England 
in 1 75 1 — The Captains — The Pitch — The Play — The Result — James Earl 
of March and Duke of Queensbury — Running their Fathers — The Carriage 
Match— G.P.O.— The Duke of Kingston— Master of the Royal Stag- 
hounds North of Trent — The Earl of Sandwich — The Viscount Howe — 
General Sir William Draper — Colonel Townshend ... ... ... 70-78 

The Manners Family — The Marquis of Granby — Lady Frances Seymour 
— The Marquis Acquires the Cheveley Estate — His Military Career — 
Charles Duke of Rutland — John Duke of Rutland — His Duchess — The 
Duke and the Turf — Cadland's Derby — The Duke's Racing Establishment 
at Cheveley — His Trainers and Jockeys — The Shooting at Cheveley and 
at The Links — Charles and John Dukes of Rutland ... ... 79-86 

Sa\tonhall : The Earls of Godolphin — Mr. Tregonwell Frampton's Dwelling 
House — Sidney Earl of Godolphin — His Career at Court — His Career on 
the Turf... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 87-94 

Francis Earl of Godolphin — Buys the Godolphin Arabian — Description of the 

Hor^e 95 

Incidents Relating to Him — Leaps from Obscurity to Fame — His Career at 

the Stud — His Owner's Career on the Turf ... ... ... ... 96-101 

Mr. Tregonwell Frampton — His Appearance at Newmarket — Where he 
becomes a Personage — His Letters Relating to Falconry — Keeper of the 

Synopsis of Contents. 

Racehorses of William III. — His Predecessor in Office — His Petition to 
James II. — Mr. Frampton's Official Capacity — The King's Racehorses at 
Newmarket — Queen Anne's Racehorses at Newmarket — An Imaginary 
Composition — " The Horrible Narrative " — The Mezzotinto Engraving by 
Faber — The Mezzotinto Engraving by Jones — An Imaginary Match — A 
Doubtful Match — Exaggerations — Mr. Frampton's Dwelling-house — His 
Winning Horses and Races from 1719 to 1727 — His Beaten Horses 
and Races from 1719 to 1727 — His Excentricity — His Critics — His 
Death ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... page 101-119 

Treasure Trove — The Turnspit's Epitaph — " Crockford's Farm " ... 1 20-1 21 
Cheveley : Manorial Customs — The Court Baron— 'Surveys and Valuations — 
The Masters of the Game —The Game-keepers — Visitors — Isinglass 
— The End 122-128 


I'age 59. — For "born in 1661 " read "August 12, 1662,'' and omit " in 1675." 
Page 81. — For "Lady Frances Seymour, who died December 2, 1748," read 

" January 25, 1761." 
Page 85. — For " jade " read " rogue." 

Page 90. — For " He adhered to James II. until he " read M the King." 
Page 1 19. — For " on the steps before the altar " read " under." He was buried 

March 15, 1727 {Old Style). 


Cheveley Park (North Front) 

Cheveley Park (South Front) 

The Cock-Pit (Newmarket) 

Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans 

Match between Charles II. and Lord Dover (Owners Up) 

William Tregonwell Frampton, Esq 



Page 24 
„ 28 
„ 38 
11 100 
„ 126 


Christmas, 1898. 




As early as the Anglo-Saxon era Cheveley (with its adjoining Cheveley. 
manors) was closely associated with royalty, the successive owners Anglo-Saxon 
being invariably conspicuously identified with chivalry and sport, Period, 

and prominent patrons of our national pastimes. Thus at the 
beginning of the tenth century we find this famous sporting 
estate in the possession of Athelstan, who is usually styled by 
historians " the first King of England." When this King's aunt 
espoused Adulf, son of the Count of Flanders, the nuptial 
presents included 300 beautiful horses {Equos cursores plurimos), 
with rich caparisons, the sword of Constantine the Great, 
and the conquering lance of Charlemagne. What became 
of those weapons has not been recorded, but a tradition 
prevails that the happy bride retained a draft of the beautiful 
coursers, and gave the rest to King Athelstan, who carefully 
preserved them and perpetuated the breed on this estate. The 
property was successively in the possession of Queen rifled, 
King Edward the Confessor, and Canute the Great, King of 
Denmark (who also ruled over five other kingdoms), while — as 
we shall subsequently have occasion to record — it is a singular 
coincidence that after the lapse of many centuries two other 
Kings of Denmark were at Cheveley in the years 161 4 and 1768. 

2 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



and Mediaeval 


The Barons 

After the Norman Conquest the estate was held by King 
William I., and was let by Knight's Service to various tenants. 

Hamon Baron Peche was appointed High Sheriff of 
Cambridgeshire by Henry II. in 1 164, and continued to hold 
that office until June, 1166, at which time, upon the assess- 
ment of the aid for marrying the King's daughter, he certified 
his Knight's Fees in Cambridgeshire to be seven and a twelfth 
part de ventri feoffamento, as also a half, third, and fourth 
part de novo : and in Suffolk to be eleven and a half and two 
fourth parts ; upon which, four years afterwards, he rendered the 
King, at a mark for each fee, £12 14s. He died in 1 190, and was 
succeeded by his son Gilbert, who, in 1 1 95, on the occasion of 
the collection of the tribute for the redemption of King Richard I., 
paid ^19 and 2od. for the Knight's Fees of his paternal inheritance, 
and i\ marks for those which descended to him through his 
mother. He died about the year 12 13, when Cheveley and 
the rest of his estates were committed by King John to the 
custody of Hugh de Bones, during the minority of Hamon, his 
son and heir, who, in 1223, obtained the precept of Henry III. 
for laying scutage upon all his own tenants by military service 
relative to the expedition to Wales. In 1241 he died whilst 
making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and his remains were 
conveyed to the Priory of Barnewell, Cambridgeshire, and there 
interred. His son and heir, Gilbert, died in 1291, and was 
succeeded by Gilbert, last Baron Peche, who attended Edward I. 
in the expedition of 1294 to Gascony. He was summoned to 
the successive Parliamentary sessions as a Baron of the Realm, 
from 29th December, 1299, to 3rd November, 1306, and again 
by Edward II., to the session assembled at York 14th November, 
1322. He married, first, Maude de Hastings, by whom he had 
a son and heir, Gilbert, who, however, was not summoned to 
Parliament, nor is any account given of their descendants ; and, 
secondly, Joane, daughter of Simon de Grey, and to his children 
by that lady he left the greatest part of his property, making 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. -i 

Edward I. heir to the rest of the barony. He died in 1323. 
The manor was subsequently held by the families of Loveday, 
Ormesby, and Fulteney. In 1349 William de Pulteney held the 
estate by service of a Knight's Fee and right of Free Warren, 
by which it is evident the sporting rights, even in those days, 
were decidedly important. 



and Mediaeval 


The adjoining manor of Ditton was given in exchange for 
Cheveley by Canute the Great. After the Norman Conquest 
it was held by William I., and was farmed by William de Nowers, 
as recorded in Doomsday Book. Later on the manor was divided 
and two new manors were formed there — one called Ditton- 
Valence and the other Ditton-Camois — which were successively and 
collaterally held by the families of de Valence, Earls of Pembroke 
and de Camois, of which latter family was the famous Lord Camois, 
who commanded the left wing of the English army at Agincourt, 
and for his valiant services on that occasion was made a Knight 
of the Garter. In the reign of Edward III. Ditton Camois was 
held by William de Pulteney (1349) by the service ofa pair of gilt 
spurs. The manor was then worth ^"20 per annum. 

William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke (who was half brother 
on the spindle side to Henry III.), was a valiant soldier and a 
mighty hunter. Sir William Dugdale records that when this Earl 
was on one of his sporting expeditions he entered a park 
belonging to the Bishop of Ely, and there, after hunting without 
leave or licence, went to the Bishop's manor house, and, finding 
nothing to drink but ordinary beer, broke open the buttery doors.* 
After all his companions had drunk their fills, they pulled the 
spigots out of the vessels, and so departed. This Lord Pembroke 
was killed in the French wars, and his remains were conveyed to 

* About the year 1350 William Bateman (then Bishop of Norwich) imposed a 
most humiliating penance on Lord Morley (a great favourite of Edward III.) for 
hunting without permission in the episcopal park. Bareheaded and barefooted the 
dejected baron went in repentant progress through the streets of Norwich with a 
lighted taper, which, kneeling, he oflered at the bishop's throne. 
B 2 





The Earls of 

4 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



The Earls of 



England and interred in Westminster Abbey under a splendid 
monument. His son and successor, Aymer de Valence, Earl 
of Pembroke, was a conspicuous sportsman, and a prominent 
commander in the wars of Scotland in the reigns of Edward I. 
and Edward II. This whilom owner of the estate was famous 
for his prowess in the saddle, and was what we would now call 
a subscriber to the interdicted tournaments on Newmarket Heath 
in 1309 and 13 13. He was killed in France in 1323, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey, when the title became extinct; 
but it was afterwards revived in favour of Jasper Tudor, 
created Earl of Pembroke, who, according to the court rolls 
of the manor, obtained a grant of Ditton-Valence in the reign 
of Henry VI. He was surnamed Hatfield, after the place of his 
birth, and was one of the main pillars of the house of Lancaster 
in the final stages of the Wars of the Roses, which ultimately 
triumphed on Bosworth field. Upon the accession of his 
nephew Henry VII., this Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, was created 
Duke of Bedford, in October, 1485. He was a famous sports- 
man, and his prowess in the saddle was undeniable. As an 
administrator he held many prominent offices of State : was 
Chief Justice of South Wales, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and 
a Knight of the Garter. He died without heirs in 1495, when 
the earldom of Pembroke and the dukedom of Bedford became 
extinct. The manor was subsequently in the possession of the 
families of Oldhall and Gorges, and was given in exchange by 
Sir Giles Capell to Henry VIII. 

In the reign of Elizabeth the adjoining manor was in 
the family of Wendy, from whom it passed by inheritance to 
the Coningsbys in the reign of Charles I. From the reign of 
Charles II. to about the beginning of the reign of George II. 
the manor belonged to the Viscounts Scudamore, a family 
conspicuously identified with horse breeding, particularly in 
Herefordshire, and whose arms were, most appropriately, gules, 
three stirrups, leathered and buckled or. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

According to a certificate " to the King's Ma ,y of Thomas 
Bishop of Ely, Sir John Hynd, Sir Robert Peyton, Thomas 
Hutton and Thomas Hudstone, assigned by the King's Grace 
Commission to them and others named in the said Commission 
directed for the taking of Musters within the said County of 
Cambridge as by the said Commission bearing date the fourth 
day of February in the second year of the reign of our Sovereign 
Lord plainly appeareth by vertue of such Commission the said 
Commissioners hath divided themselves for setting forth of the 
said Musters in form following — That is to say : " 


Edward VI. 


In the Hundreds of Cheveley, Radfield, Chillford, and 
Wittlesford the Musters were taken by John Cotton, John 
Huddleston, Jacob Dyer, esquires, Robert Lockton and John 

From this enrolment it appears that the Manor of Cheveley 
contributed — and was assessed to produce — three archers and 
sixteen billmen for the King's service. The name of each soldier 
is given, viz. : 


DlTTON Robt. Collyn. 

John Marty n. 

Witton Dalton. 
The same towne ys furnisshed w ij harneysses. 

February 4, 

Cheveley ... Witton Lynwoode. 
Thomas Glover. 
Rye Smythe. 
John Flatman. 
The same towne ys furnisshed w ij harneysses. 

6 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



The same towne ys 

Edward Sawder. 
Richard Smythe. 
Jaffray Smythe. 
Rob. Caley. 
John Fowler, 
furnished w l iij harneysses. 


ASSHELEY John Glover. 

John Edmunde. 
Robt. Edmunde. 
The same towne ys furnisshed w' ij harneysses. 

A rchers. 
Newmarket... Robt. Plowman. 
Christopher Wallson 
Witton Tyff. 
John Ivelson. 
The same towne ys furnisshed w l iij harneysses. 


Forces levied in Cambridgeshire to serve against the Spanish 

Cheveley Manor 
June, 1588. 

... Light Horsemen 8. Footmen 12. 

Certified by Lord (Roger) North, 
Lord Lieutenant of the Co. Cambs. 

June 6, 1597. 

In an indenture of delivery by Sir John Cutts, Sir John 
Peyton, and Sir John Cotton, Deputy Lieutenants of Cam- 
bridgeshire, appointed to execute Her Majesty's Commission of 
Lieutenancy in the absence of Roger, Lord North, Lord 
Lieutenant of the said county, to Captain Garrett Dillon, of 
100 able men named, whereof 50 are well-armed pikes, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

40 musketeers, and 10 calivers,* who are to be at London on 
the 10th instant, the Hundred of Cheveley, was represented in 
the said levy by Clement Ludlowe. 

The Justices of the Peace within the Hundred of Cheveley 
certified to the Judges of Assise that the two privy watches 
were kept in the said Hundred the 20th day of August and 
the 14th day of September last past, that there were no rogues, 
vagabonds, or masterless men. 

Pursuant to, and in obedience of, the commands of the 
Privy Council, dated December 29, 1583, whereby Commissioners 
were duly appointed " to take view of all able men within their 
respective counties and shires, and to have them in readiness 
for defence of the realm in case of any sudden invasion," the 
Commissioners to whom this duty in the County of Cambridge 
was entrusted, namely, Roger Lord North, Francis Hynde, Robert 
Peyton, Anthony Cage, John Hatton, and others, duly drew up 
and sent to the Privy Council their report thereon, from which it 
appears that on January 24, 1583-4, they " viewed the men, shot, 
and weapons " available for active service within the said county. 
This levy yielded a total muster of 800 men ; the Hundred of 
Cheveley contributing 34 able men, armed with 6 " croslets," 
8 " shot," 8 " bows," and 8 " bills." 

The Commissioners on this occasion remarked, that, "The 
number of men alloted vnto vs be readie, w th some armes shott 
and weapons, howbeit the armes w ch wee haue ys verie 
vnseruiceable and insufficient, albeit wee hadd the same a fewe 
yeares past by order owte of y e Tower [of London] notw th standinge 
all defectes shall spedelie & sufficientlye be supplied in y e same 
kyndes. Touching y e armes shott & weapons w ch wee wante, 
there shall forth wth some persons be appointed to attende y r good 
LL : further direction in what places of London wee shall be for 
o r money fytted of these things, w ch vpon proofe shall be found 
seruiceable. The whole number of 800 men shall lykewise be 
* A hand-gun or arquebuse. 




Rogues and 


January 24, 


Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 






thoroughlie furnyshed according to y e sedule your LL : sent 
enclosed w th your Ires, at or before the daye prescribed 
vnto vs." 

The Commissioners then beg to inform the Privy Council 
that although H.M. levy in this county does not exceed 800 
men, with arms, shot, and weapons, it was nevertheless a great 
burden for a shire so small to bear, "where the people lyve 
in contynneal toyle w th great charge & lytle gayne." 

In July, 1585, Queen Elizabeth wrote to the Commissioners 
of Musters for the County of Cambridge directing them to levy 
and arm a certain number of able men in that county, for 
service in the Low Countries, in a special expedition against 
Sluys and the port towns on the coast of Flanders. This 
levy was to be at a minimum rate of ^"3 \os. per man — 
" whereof \os. shall serve for the provision of apparel * and 
30s. for arms by which one means bothe the one and the other 
shall by those that are appointed to take care thereof be so 
prepared and put in readiness as the soldiers shall receive 
their apparel at the place of embarking, and their arms entirely 
delivered on the other side of the sea where the troops are to 
be landed." Unfortunately, the details of this levy and muster 
have not been preserved. 

According to the certificate of Sir Thomas Sandys, Sir 
John Carleton [of Cheveley], Knights and Baronetts ; Sir John 
Cutts, Sir Edward Hynde, and Sir Simon Steward, Knights, 
Deputy Lieutenants to the Right Hon. the Earl of Suffolk, 
Lord Lieutenant of this County of Cambridge, made the sixth 
day of October, A.D. 1629; it appears from this muster that 
the number of men (infantry) was 1000, who were armed with 
461 corslets and 539 muskets. There were also cavalry, namely, 
50 carbineers, and 50 dragoons, under the command of Mr. 
Robert Millecent, Captain. 

The details of this muster are not given in the several 
* Uniform, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Hundreds within the county ; it is only classified under the east 
and west side of the shire, and the Isle of Ely. 

By a subsequent muster (which is undated) it appears 
there were no defaulters when the latter was taken. 

On the 26th of March, 1639, the Council of War at London 
wrote to the Lord Lieutenant of the Co. Cambridge, or in his 
absence to the Deputy Lieutenants there, directing attention to 
H.M. orders for sending 1000 trained soldiers of that county to 
Gravesend, to be there by the ensuing 8th of April. The Council 
of War were now, by H.M. command, to require the said Deputy 
Lieutenants to take order, that of the said number there be sent 
20 sergeants and 20 drummers, together with their halberts and 
drums. And for the more orderly embarking of the men the 
Deputy Lieutenants were enjoined to consider how long before 
the 8th of April it would be requisite for the officers who were 
to command them to be at the port, to take charge of them, 
and to prevent their committing disorders in the country. 
The Deputy Lieutenants were to take special care that the 
arms sent were to be very good and complete as these were 
intended to be duly restored to the county at the end of the 

At the time the Civil War was imminent, Charles I. issued a 
proclamation to all loyal subjects to take up arms in his behalf, and 
to place themselves under the leaders appointed by him. The 
Parliament, on the other side, called out the county militia, and 
ordered every parish to send its quota to the ranks. Every 
incumbent was required to find one man, fully equipped, for 
the muster. At Cheveley the minister read the King's com- 
mission only, refused to take the covenant, and declined to send 
a man-at-arms to the muster of the Parliamentary forces. For 
this he was deprived of the benefice, and an adherent of the 
other party inducted in his place.* 

* The Rev. Edward Conybeare, in " A History of Cambridgeshire " (Txmdon, 
1897), page 224, in referring to the concentration of the Parliamentary forces on 



Charles I. 


10 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Charles I. 


Licensing and 

Corn Laws. 

According to a certificate of the Justices of the Peace for 
the Co. Cambridge (who were ordered by the Privy Council to 
hold a supply of corn, &c, and to set forth the quantity and price 
of the same within the several Hundreds) it appears by the said 
certificate, dated March 29, in the seventh year of H.M. reign 
(A.D. 1631) that, in obedience of the said order, they certified 
having made a sufficient provision of corn for that year, and 
confirmed the same by the assent of the inhabitants, and for the 
better continuance thereof suppressed all malting for the present 
(the necessities of the times enforcing them thereto) ; and like- 
wise bound all ale-house keepers in new recognizances to utter 
or sell no beer under two quarts for a " pennie." The Justices 
of the Peace likewise by their warrants raised wards by days and 
watches by nights for the apprehending of rogues, vagabonds, and 
other loose and wandering persons that so they may receive 
condign punishment according to the statute in that kind 
provided. They also " bound " apprentices in the said Hundreds 

Triplow Heath, June 10, 1647, says : " It was from this camp on Triplow Heath — 
till within living memory the same wide, open expanse of turf around the ' Nine 
Wells' that was then — that Cornet Joyce set forth on that memorable ride to 
Holmby House which gave the King's person into the power of the army. Already 
surrendered by the Scots into the hands of Parliamentary Commissioners, he was 
now taken into other keeping by authority of that other Commission, ' written in fine 
legible characters ' — the Cornet's stalwart troopers. From Holmby he was conveyed 
to Cheveley, in our country, where Fairfax and Cromwell ' wailed on ' him, and 
arranged for his removal to Newmarket, where, as well as at Royston, his father had 
set up a hunting-box. The natural road from Holmby would have been through 
Cambridge, where the streets were decked with green boughs and ' whole rose 
bushes ' to receive him. But fear of popular demonstration amid these May Term 
gaieties caused his escort to carry him round by Trumpington, where we hear of 
' much preparation for his Majesty by sweeping the streets, cutting doune boughes, 
and preparing of benefires ' [bonfires]. At Newmarket he was kept under careful 
guard." . . . We are unable to endorse the accuracy of the words italicised in 
the above extract. It seems the rev. author has mistaken Cheveley for Childerley, 
where Charles I. was brought after his seizure by the Parliamentary forces at 
Holmby Hall, Northamptonshire. Childerley is twenty miles from Cheveley. It is 
very probable the King was at Cheveley occasionally at that time, but certainly not 
under the circumstances above mentioned. See " The History of Newmarket," 
vol. II., pp. 49-60, where all the details of the detention of Charles I. at Newmarket, 
in June, 1647, are given. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. ll 

to pursue H.M. commands, orders, and directions, whereof they Cheveley. 

set their hands, &c. T . — , 

' Licensing and 

Signed by Sir John Carleton Com Laws, 

(of Cheveley) 
Sir Edward Peyton 
Thomas Wilson 

Isaac Barrow. 

On the ensuing 21st of April the said Justices of the Peace 
for the Co. Cambridge drew up and presented their Report 
to the Right Hon. " Mr. Tyrrell, Esq r ., Sheriffe of the 
Countie of Cambridge," therein reciting that by vertue of 
a letter from the Right Hon. the Lords of H.M. most honour- 
able Privy Council, they caused a search and exact survey to 
be taken of all the grain remaining in the several Hundreds 
aforesaid, and upon purview of the surveyors they found 
[inter alia] that in the Hundred of Cheveley there was 176 
quarters of wheat and rye, 324 quarters of barley, and 
40 quarters of malt.* 

On June 10, 1634, the Justices of the Peace presented Charles I. 
their report to the Right Hon. Sir Robert Berkeley, Knight, J une IO > l6 3*- 
Judge of the Assize for the County of Cambridge, certifying that 
they held a meeting at Newmarket on the above mentioned 
day to take measures for the relief of the poor within the 
Hundred of Cheveley, &c, " according to the Orders and 
Directions formerly received from the King's most excellent 
Majesty " in that respect. From this return it transpires that 
those magistrates, upon this occasion, (i.) " placed and putt forth 
Twentie poore Children as Apprentices to sufficient and able 
Masters." (ii.) They restrained and discharged eight several 

* The current prices are not given in this return. By a similar one taken at 
Caxton the price of grain, &c, at Royston market was : Wheat, gs. ; barley, 5*. ; 
oats, 3J. t,d. ; peas, 5^. ; and malt, 5^. per bushel. 

C 2 

12 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Licensing and 

Corn Laws. 


persons from buying barley to convert to malt. (iii.) They 
received a presentment from the several constables showing 
that 32 rogues and vagabonds were lately punished within that 
division of the county ; and, (iv.) that they had a good account 
made to them how the " several town stocks had been employed 
in that division." 

The certificate is signed by the following magistrates : 

(Sir) John Carleton 
Thomas Wilson 
Isaac Barrow 

Thomas Tyrrell. 


thereon at 


and Burwell. 

On the ensuing July 8 the same Justices of the Peace held a 
similar meeting relating to the like affairs within the Hundred of 
Cheveley, at Newmarket, on the above mentioned day. They 
certified to Sir Robert Bartlett [Berkley] that they took the 
account of the churchwardens and overseers of the Poor as to 
what poor children there had been within the said division of 
the county who were fit to be put forth and placed as apprentices, 
"and did at that time place and bind forthwith 16 poore children 
to honest & able maisters." They suppressed twelve maultsters. 
They exacted a strict account of the several constables within 
the said division as to the vagrants and wanderers so taken and 
punished. By the certificates it appeared the number of persons 
arrested and punished was 18; and further they did at this 
meeting appoint a privy search to be made within the said 
division against their next meeting. They gave strict charge to 
the officers concerning ale-houses ; commanding those officials to 
enquire into such as were unlicensed, " and whether there be any 
in the said towns which may well be spared." 

On the ensuing August 1 the same Magistrates again met at 
Burwell to investigate and report on the rural affairs at Cheveley 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 13 

and the adjoining Hundreds. Their first concern, on this occasion, 
was to prohibit the extraordinary buying of barley to be converted 
into malt and to suppress fourteen maltsters. They apprenticed 
four poor children. They found that 13 rogues and wandering 
persons had been punished within the division since their last 
meeting. Certain idle persons who were formerly out of service 
were punished, and steps were taken to place them with " sufficient 
& able maisters." It appeared by the constable's presentments 
that certain persons within the division had obstinately and of 
their own authority taken upon themselves the common selling 
of ale and beer ; consequently the Magistrates issued warrants to 
attach the said delinquents ; and further they " diminished the 
number of such licensed houses as they did not hold needful." 

The next meeting of these Justices of the Peace for this 
division of the county was held at Newmarket, situate in the 
Cheveley Hundred, on October 14. In their Report to Sir Robert 
Berkeley, Judge of the Assize, it transpires, they apprenticed 
four youngsters — found by the constables' bills that there were 
six vagrants " punished according to the statutes in that cause 
provided " — gave strict charge for a privy search to be made 
under the Chief Constable and the petty constables within the 
division — and finally gave " strict chardge for the chousing 
of able men to serve as constables in the divers Townns w th in 
o r division." 

On the ensuing November 24 the same magistrates met at 
Burwell, investigated the state of rural affairs occurring within 
the Hundred of Cheveley and the adjoining parts, since their last 
meeting, and reported to the Judge of Assize that they now 
suppressed one alehouse, bound five apprentices to able masters, 
gave strict charge to the local constabulary "for looking to 
alehouses that they keep good order and to give them notice who 
they shall find faulite in that kind," and that they bound over 
" three able men for refusing to take apprentices to appeare at 
the next assises." 

14 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Ditto n 

Henry VIII. 

Sir Giles Capel 


Henry VIII. 


An interesting incident associated with the pheasants 
and partridges of the locality now known as the famous 
" Links beat,"* adjoining Newmarket Heath, occurred there in 
the reign of Henry VIII. At that time Sir Giles Capel 
was the lord of the manor. His first wife, Lady Mary Capel, 
had a grant of 20 marks a year from Henry VII. The 
annuity was confirmed to her by Henry VIII. In November, 
1535, the payments were two and a half years in arrear ; 
and, in order to obtain the money, Sir Giles wrote to Cromwell 
(who became Chancellor after the fall of Cardinal Wolsey) 
to remind him of the circumstance, and to solicit payment 
of the amount. On this occasion Sir Giles — probably to 
propitiate the powerful Minister — intimated that " his goshawk has 
killed a few pheasants and partridges," which he forwarded for the 
Chancellor's acceptance. The present was highly appreciated, 
and, moreover, Sir Giles obtained an order on the Exchequer for 
the arrears of his wife's annuity. Those pheasants and partridges 
were greatly admired at Court, and when the King saw them he 
claimed them for his own table. The Links pheasants and partridges 
in modern times have obtained a high reputation with gunners and 
bon vivants who have had the felicity of making their acquaintance. 
That they constituted a dainty dish to place before a King, in the 
days of Henry VIII., is proved by the above circumstance; and it 

* It is difficult to satisfactorily get at the meaning or the derivation of this 
place. It never had anything to do with golf, as it was never played there. 
Topographically, the name cannot be applied, because the configuration of the 
ground does not admit of that interpretation, nor is there any sand or waste land 
there, according to the Scotch meaning. Some of the beats are certainly partly 
linked to one another, but they are called " rides." In Suffolk, sausages were 
frequently called "links." When George II. landed at Lowestoft, January 14, 
1736-7, it was so dark by the time he reached Copdock that lights were thought 
necessary ; the officer in advance inquired of the landlady at the White Elm if she 
had any flambeaux, or could procure any. Being answered in the negative, 
he asked her if she had any links. " Aye, that I have," said she, " and some 
as good as His Majesty (God bless him) ever eat in all his life; " and immediately 
produced some fine sausages ! Not far from " The Links " is the " Beacon 
Course" — another topographical puzzle. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 15 

is likewise confirmed by the fact that, soon after, this manor Ditton 

(which, at the time mentioned, was worth only ^"22 12s. 6d. a 
year; was acquired by Henry VIII., who gave Sir Giles Capel 
three manors in Essex, Herts, and Middlesex, producing an 
annual income of thrice the value of this one taken by the 
King in exchange for them. These incidents prove that the 
value of shooting rights is not of so recent a creation as is 
commonly supposed ; a careful investigation of conveyances of 
estates and old leases (as in this case) demonstrates that the 
" apprehensione volatilium " (fowling), in cases where what we now 
term the " shooting," was good, commanded a specific value over 
and above the agricultural produce of the land. It is obvious Bluff 
King Hal acquired this manor because the game there was probably 
the best obtainable in his dominions. 

Sir Giles Capel was son and heir of Alderman Sir William 
Capel (Lord Mayor of London in 1503 and 1509) and Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Arundel, Knight, of Lanhern, co. Cornwall. 
Sir William obtained a grant of the manor of Ditton Valence in the 
thirteenth year of the reign of Henry VII. (A.D. 1498). His son, 
Giles Capel, was one of the most famous sportsmen and cavaliers 
of the reign of Henry VIII. We first hear of him when he was 
appointed a captain to serve in the expedition to France in June, 
1 51 2, where, by his martial deeds, he attained a high reputation, 
and was knighted for his valour at the sieges of Terouenne and 
Tournay, and at the action of Guinegate, called the Battle of Spurs. 
The ceremony of his knighthood was attended with all the pomp 
and circumstance of victory in the church of Terouenne, " after 
the Kinge came from Masse, under the banner in the Churche, 
December 25th, in the 5th yeare of his reigne " (A.D. 1 513). Sir 
Giles attended the King during the expedition into France in 1520, 
where he and others challenged all gentlemen there to feats of arms 
for four days. This famous tournament is known as " The Field 
bf the Cloth of Gold," and so well did Sir Giles do his devoir on 
that occasion, that he was included among those, on the English 


l(> Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Ditto n 


Sir Giles Capel 


Henry VIII. 







side, who deserved special prizes. In May, 1522, he was appointed 
to attend Cardinal Wolsey and the officers of State to receive the 
Emperor Charles V. on his arrival at Dover. He seems to have 
longed for active service, as in the ensuing autumn he was 
appointed to command the Maria Gadalope frigate of 140 tons. 
There were, however, few opportunities to indulge his martial 
inclinations until the Northern Rebellion broke out in 1536, when he 
raised two subsidies of 150 men-at-arms from his estates in Essex 
and Herts. This rising being soon suppressed, Sir Giles appears 
to have principally given his attention to sporting and rural affairs. 
He was High Sheriff of Essex and Herts in 1528 and 1537, M.P. 
for Herts in 1534, and was a J. P. of Essex and a Commissioner to 
collect the King's subsidies in that county. He appears to have 
almost withdrawn from the Court in 1534, as he let his London 
mansion to the Ambassador of Charles V. Nevertheless, we find 
him officiating at the christening of Edward, Prince of Wales 
(October 15, 1537), and at the reception of Anne of Cleves, at 
Greenwich, in January, 1540. At his death, Sir Giles was 
succeeded by his son, Sir Henry Capel, of Rainse Hall, from 
whom descend the Capels, Earls of Essex. 

According to survey made in the eighteenth year of the reign 
of Henry VIII., it was found that the manor of Cheveley and the 
manor of Ditton Camois about that time had been the jointure of 
Alice Cotton, late wife of Sir Robert Cotton, Knight ; that John 
Cotton, brother of Thomas Cotton, son and heir of Sir Robert 
Cotton, Knight, was thirteen years of age ; that the manor of 
Cheveley and other lands, with their appurtenances, was worth 
^25 per annum ; and that the manor of Ditton Camois, with the 
appurtenances, was held by Knight's service, and was worth ^24 
a year. 

In the seventeenth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth a 
suit was instituted in the Court of Chancery by Sir John Cotton, 
Knight, of Landwade, against Thomas Stutvill, Esquire, of 
Dalham, co. Suffolk, relating to a piece of " heath ground " in the 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 17 

parish of Cheveley, on which Sir John claimed commonage. It 
contained by estimation three score acres, " eared about with a 
plough in part towards the town of Newmarket from Moulton, 
abutting upon Moulton Heath towards the east, and upon the 
Queen's highway leading from Moulton towards Newmarket towards 
the south," which piece of ground Sir John and his ancestors "held, 
occupied, and enjoyed as part of the manor of Cheveley for sheep, 
pasture, and warren ground without interruption until Thomas 
Stutvill, wrongfully pretending title of common of pasture, put and 
kept three hundred sheep there, alleging rights for certain tenants 
which he had in the town of Cheveley within a parcel of the manor 
of Bansted, which he contended appertained the privilege of 
commonage there as established by certain deeds and charters 
made in the time of Richard III. and Henry VII." There were 
many interesting disputes relating to the rights of common on 
this piece of ground, which was claimed from time to time by the 
successive owners of the manors of Cheveley and Bansted 




The Cotton Family. 
The name of this family is said to be derived from the manor 
of Cotton, anciently called Cotes, in the hundred of Wetherley, 
and deanery of Barton, about three miles west of Cambridge, of 
which Sir Henry Cotton, lord of the manor of Cotton Hall, in this 
county, or, according to other authorities, of Cotton Hall, Exning, 
co. Suffolk, was seated. At any rate, it is admitted that he married 
Anne, daughter and heir of Sir Henry le Fleming, by whom he had 
issue Thomas, his son and heir, father of Humphrey, who by Anne, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Holbroke, had issue Sir Thomas Cotton, 
who married Alice, daughter and heir of John de Hastings, of 
Landwade and Fordham, co. Cambridge, who possessed that 
estate, and left issue John Cotton, who was M.P. in several 
sessions for Cambridge in the reign of Richard II., and died in 
1393. He married Bridget, daughter of Richard Grace, of 

Sir Henry 

Sir Thomas 

John Cotton, 

18 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Cotton 


Walter Cotton. 



Sir Thomas 




Sir John 

Norfolk, by whom he had two sons, Thomas, who died without 
issue, and Walter, heir to his brother, who died May 14, 1445, 
and was buried at Landwade. 

His eldest son, William Cotton, of Landwade, was Vice- 
Chamberlain to Henry VI., and also Keeper of the Wardrobe, 
Receiver of the Queen Consort, and Collector for the Duchy of 
Lancaster. He was killed at the battle of St. Alban's, fighting on 
the side of Henry VI., May 22, 1453, from whom he had a grant 
of several privileges, and was buried at Landwade. He married 
Anne, daughter and co-heir of John Abbot, Esq., and had issue 
six sons and three daughters. 

His son and heir, Sir Thomas Cotton, was sheriff of Cam- 
bridge and Huntingdon in the sixteenth year of the reign of 
Edward IV. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir Philip 
Wentworth, of Nettlestead, co. Essex, by whom he had five sons 
and two daughters, and on his death, July 30, 1499, was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Robert, who was knighted by Henry VII. He 
married, first, Dorothy, daughter of Sir Robert Gere,- by whom he 
had Thomas, who died without heirs, and Anne, heir to her brother, 
who, being a nun professed in the Abbey of Denny, near Cam- 
bridge, of the Order of Poor Clares, and therefore incapable 
of holding property, gave her estate to John Cotton, her half- 
brother. Sir Robert died July 18, 15 19. At the time of his 
death, it appears by the escheats of 10 Henry VIII. (1519), 
he held the manor of Ditton Camois, 300 acres of land, 360 acres 
of meadow, 5 acres of pasture, 140 acres of wood, there and 
in Cheveley, of the king by fealty and by the rent of a pair 
of gilt spurs for all services. He also held the manor of Cheveley 
with the advowson of the church, of the Earl-Marshal of England, 
by socage. He also held the manor of Landwade. By his second 
wife, he had Sir John Cotton, who was Sheriff of Cambridge and 
Huntingdon in 1549, and again in 1557. He married Isabel, 
daughter of Sir William Spencer, of Althorpe, co. Northampton, 
by whom they had eight sons and five daughters, of whom five 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 19 

Sir John 

sons and two daughters died in their nonage ; three sons, John, Cheveley. 
Robert, and Edmond, were all knighted. Sir Robert, the second 
son, was seated at Woodditton, and his sister Alice was married to 
Sir Thomas Revet, of Chippenham. 

His eldest surviving son, Sir John Cotton, of Landwade, 
married three times, and had no surviving issue by his first and 
second wife ; but by his third spouse, Anne, daughter of Sir 
Richard Houghton, Bart., of Houghton Tower, Lancashire, he had 
issue James, John, and Catherine. He was Lord- Lieutenant and 
Custos Rotulorum for Cambridgeshire, and served for many years 
as Knight of the Shire for that county, and was knighted by 
James I. at Whitehall, July 23, 1603. He is said to have built or 
enlarged Cheveley Hall about this time, and to have made it his Cheveley Hall, 
principal residence. He died in 1620, aged seventy-seven, and 
was buried in Landwade Church, leaving John, his son and heir, 
who was created a baronet by Charles I. in 1641. In March, 
1639, he obtained jointly with Richard Holford, at the nomination 
of Henry Jermyn, certain lands within the soke of Somersham, 
co. Huntingdon, at the yearly rent of ^20, and a confirmation of 
a lease of the same formerly made to Sir Thomas Jermyn for sixty 
years. He was High Sheriff of Cambridge when the rebellion 
broke out, and, adhering to the cause of Charles I. and the 
Cavaliers, proclaimed the Earl of Essex a traitor in every market 
town in the county. Sir John took up arms for his Sovereign, 
and, according to Wotton, " was instructed to carry the plate of 
the University of Cambridge to the King at Oxford, which he 
safely delivered, through many difficulties, being followed by a 
body of Cromwell's horse."* This account of the transaction 
cannot be substantiated. By another version it appears that in 
August, 1642, Sir John Cotton, then High Sheriff of Cambridge- 
shire, was ordered by Charles I. to proceed to Cambridge, 





* Compare Cooper's "Annals of Cambridge," Vol. III., pp. 327-330, where it 
.is stated that Cromwell succeeded in preventing part of the University plate being 
conveyed to the King. 

D 2 

20 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Cotton and there to demand the University plate, and to convey the said 
army, plate to his mother's house at Cheveley for his Majesty's military 

chest. In order to execute the King's command, Sir John Cotton, 
by virtue of his office, summoned Captain James Dockwra, of 
Fulbourn, to attend him with his "train band" for the preservation 
of the peace, in case any disturbance should arise in the execution 
of this delicate undertaking. But it appears when the High Sheriff 
and Captain Dockwra arrived at Cambridge, the University 
authorities made obstacles and excuses of such a nature as to 
avoid surrendering the plate, and that " no plate was carried to the 
King" on that occasion. Three years afterwards this affair was 
raked up, and, in consequence of the transaction, Sir John Cotton, 
on May 27, 1645, was fined ^350 by the Parliamentary Seques- 
trators, which sum being only one year's value of his estate, " the 
reason because of the smallness of his offence." For aiding and 
abetting the High Sheriff on that occasion, Captain Dockwra was 
apprehended and brought before the House of Commons, where, 
on proof of his innocency, he was discharged.* 

Only a few more references are necessary in relation to the 
career of this Sir John Cotton. After the defeat of the Cavaliers 
he went abroad, and apparently did not return to England for some 
years. He died March 25, 1689, in the seventy-fourth year of 
his age, having been for many years a Deputy-Lieutenant and a 
Justice of the Peace for Cambridgeshire. By his wife, Jane, 
daughter and sole heir of Edward Hinde, Esq., of Maddingley, and 
co-heir of her mother, the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas 
Maples, Bart., he had two sons and two daughters, to whom it is 
not necessary to allude. When Sir John Cotton's mother married 
(secondly) Sir John Carleton in 1625, Cheveley Hall went into 
his hands, and from thence it passed by purchase to the Jermyns. 
Sir John His son and heir, Sir John Cotton, M.P., second Baronet, of 

Landwade and Madingley Hall, married Elizabeth, daughter of 

* Royalist Composition Papers. Committee for Compounding, Vol. G. 223, 
If. 60Q-649 

Cotton, M.P. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 21 

Sir Joseph Sheldon, Knight, and Lord Mayor of London, by The Cotton 
whom he had issue Sir John Hynde Cotton, his successor, another ami y " 

son, and nine daughters. He died in January, 171 2-13. His son 
and heir, Sir John Hynde Cotton, third Baronet, was returned Sir J. H. 
M.P. for the borough of Cambridge in 1708, 1710, 1713, 1715, Cotton, M.P. 
and 1722, but being also elected for the county of Cambridge in 
the last mentioned year, he decided to represent the latter con- 
stituency. At a subsequent election he was defeated. According 
to a contemporary writer, he " Was a most able speaker in the 
House of Commons on the Tory side, which some would also call 
the Jacobite Party. It was thought necessary by his friends that 
one of his weight and influence should have a seat in the House, 
where he was reckoned one of the best speakers, though, what is 
very extraordinary, he had a great hesitation and stammering in his 
speech ; and he was considered to be one of the most able leaders 
of his party. In the year that his cousin Gilbert Affleck, Esq., of 
Dalham, co. Suffolk, was elected for the town of Cambridge, in 
the room of Thomas Scalter Bacon, Esq., whose death caused the 
election, it was visible that Sir John Hynde Cotton's interest with 
the Corporation was lost and gone ; for the Aldermen, though 
almost all of them to a man were Tories in their hearts, wanted 
their members to be more free of their money among them than 
they found Sir John Hynde Cotton was, who, they gave out, never 
traded with them for the necessaries of his house at Madingley, but 
sent to London and anywhere else where he could purchase the 
cheapest, and the Court party, or Whigs, seeing the Aldermen and 
managing men of the Corporation grasping for money, it was 
found for them." ... Sir John Hynde Cotton was elected 
M.P. for the Borough of Marlborough in 1741, and again in 1747. 
He was one of the fattest, largest, and tallest men of his day, and 
although he indulged in equestrian exercise, it had no effect in 
reducing his corpulence. He was a remarkably handsome man, 
and of fine physique. He drank heavily, and was a notable six- 
bottle man. An anecdote to the following effect is told of him. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Cotton 

Sir John H. 
Cotton, Bart. 

Admiral Sir 
Charles Cotton. 

Sir " Vinny " 

Being hurt when his valet was pulling off his boots after an attack 
of the gout, Sir John, in the extremity of the pain he felt, swore 
at his leg. His valet, an old and trusted servant, took the liberty 
to advise his master, not only to not exceed six bottles of port, but 
to stint himself to a less quantity, upon which Sir John hastily told 
him that if his leg could not bear his daily quantity of six bottles, it 
was no leg for him. He died February 4, 1752, and was succeeded 
by his only son and heir, Sir John Hynde Cotton, third Baronet, 
the fifteenth heir male of the family, and the sixth of the name of 
John in a regular succession. He was educated at Westminster 
School and Emanuel College, Cambridge. He was elected M.P. 
for the borough of Marlborough on the vacancy which was caused 
there by the death of his father in 1 752, and he was re-elected for the 
same constituency in 1745. He married, in 1745, his cousin Anne, 
one of the daughters of Humphrey Parsons, Esq., Alderman, and 
twice Lord Mayor of London, on whose decease he had a share in 
the then famous brewery in the parish of St. Catherine's, London, 
where he had the honour to entertain, on Saturday, April 22, 
1763, the Duke of York, with " beef-stakes dressed upon the coals 
in the stoak-hole of the said brewhouse." He died January 23, 
1 795, aged 78, and was succeeded by his son, Admiral Sir Charles 
Cotton, Bart., who died on board the Pelorus frigate, off Plymouth, 
February 23, 1812. 

His eldest son, Sir St. Vincent Cotton, sixth and last Baronet, 
was born at Madingley Hall, Cambridgeshire, on October 6, 1801. 
He was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, and 
obtained a lieutenancy in the 10th Light Dragoons on December 13, 
1827, and served with his regiment in Portugal. During his resi- 
dence abroad he kept up a correspondence with the driver of the 
" Cambridge Times " coach, in which he did not give a very 
favourable opinion of the Portuguese. After his return to England 
in 1830, he retired from the army. He very soon distinguished 
himself in the hunting, shooting, racing, cricketing, and pugilistic 
world. He was familiarly known either as Vinny Cotton or as Sir 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Vincent Twist. His insatiable passion for hazard was his ruin, and 
Crockford is reported to have said of Sir St. Vincent that he never 
knew his equal in fondness for play, or a more dangerous player. 
Having entirely dissipated the Madingley property, he was obliged 
to look out for some means of obtaining a living, and taking 
advantage of his skill as a coachman, and aware of the profits to be 
made on the Brighton Road by a well-appointed coach, he bought 
the goodwill of the " Age " from Jack Willaw, and for years 
drove it from Brighton to London and back. Coach travelling 
had never been brought to such a pitch of perfection as it then 
reached under Cotton's auspices. The " Age," however, could 
not ultimately compete with the railway, and he had reluctantly to 
give up his coach. During the last few years of his life he was so 
completely paralysed that he had to be carried to his carriage, and 
strapped to the seat. He died, unmarried, at Kensington Road, 
London, on January 25, 1863, when the baronetcy became extinct. 

The Cotton 

The Brighton 

As previously mentioned (Sir) John Carleton, by his marriage 
with Lady Anne, widow of Sir John Cotton, Bart., in February, 
1624-25, acquired Cheveley Park, with certain appurtenances 
thereunto belonging. He was made a Deputy- Lieutenant of the 
co. Cambridge soon after, and created a baronet in 1627. In June, 
1630, he was commissioned by Charles I. to preserve the King's 
game within the verge of Newmarket Palace — the verge at this 
time embracing a circuit of twelve miles. By virtue of his office, 
he received a warrant on the Exchequer for ^200 for repairing the 
paling of " His Majesty's newly created warren called Wilbrahm 
Bushes, between the towns of Newmarket and Shelford, in the 
county of Cambridge, and for defraying other necessary charges 
incident to the keeping of the said warren and game." By a 
similar warrant, dated June, 1630, he was authorised to appoint 
qualified persons once every year (when the season is) to take up 
partridges in the counties of Suffolk, Essex, and Cambridge for 
the store and increase of his Majesty's game about Newmarket ; 


Sir John 

Second Master 

of the Game 
at Newmarket 

by Charles I. 

24 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Turning down 

there in 1630. 


The King's 
Letter on the 


Prerogative in 


with direction to acquaint the gentlemen of those parts of their 
coming, in order that there would be no spoil made of the game 
nor abuse committed. 

The duties incidental to this office evidently entailed on Sir John 
Carleton serious trouble, as we learn by a familiar letter dated 
Cheveley, November 14, 1630, to his uncle, Viscount Dorchester, 
in which he says : " I haue so troublesome an office, that no 
sooner my backe is turned but an inundation of greyhounds, hunters, 
and faulkoners come downe vpon me that I almost despair to 
discharge it to the King's liking." By this it would appear that 
" the season " for turning down game in the Royal preserves in the 
vicinity of Newmarket was observed late in the year. Apart from 
the occurrences of those "inundations," Sir John Carleton found 
suitable opportunities to receive and entertain his guests at Cheveley. 
In the spring of this year Charles I. paid him frequent visits. 
Probably the lion of those days at Cheveley was Peter Paul 
Rubens, who was then attending the Court at Newmarket, in his 
capacity of Ambassador of the Archduchess Isabella, to sound the 
King, ascertain his views, and pave the way for a peace or a 
"suspension of arms." In this embassy the eminent artist was 
successful, a treaty of peace having been concluded and signed at 
Madrid soon after. 

In 1636 Sir John Carleton was High Sheriff of Cambridge- 
shire. In the spring of this year he received the following letter 
under the King's own hand : 

" Whereas wee are given to Vnder stand that pur hount 
grounds within the Bounds of Newmarkett there are diuers 
both Lords and other of our subjects that usually giues their 
meeting there in those places w ch Wee preserue for our own 
Sport, these are therefore to will [and] comand you vpon 
sight hereof to giue warning to all such as uses to hunt in our 
absence to forbeare to come within our Liberties of Newmarkett, 
and hereaftere as you will be answerable to vs, upon your perill 
permit or suffer no man to come in our absence except such of our 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 25 

serua ts and others as bring their hounds at those tymes of our 
being there to make vs sport. Giuen Vnder our Signett, att our 
Court at Whitehall, the 13th of Aprill, 1636. 

" To our Trusty and Well Beloued S r John Carleton, Kn'- and 
Baronett, whom we haue appointed for preseruing of our Game 
within the bounds of Newmarkett." 

When the King was at Newmarket in the spring of this year, 
he consulted Sir John Carleton at Cheveley as to the most 
effectual measures to adopt in order to suppress poaching. It 
was there and then decided to write to the Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, and to the Judges of Assize, informing them that persons 
of inferior rank uaed great boldness in killing game, which is inter- 
dicted to them by great penalties, and, notwithstanding the late 
proclamation, are unable to be restrained ; and that the King was 
now resolved, as a probable remedy, that every tavern and ale- 
house keeper shall every year become bound in the sum of ^20 
not to dress or sell any venison, red or fallow, or any hare, pheasant, 
partridge, or heath-poult, and that he has committed the charge 
thereof to Sir William Uvedale and Sir Thomas Hatton. A letter 
was also sent to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London, and 
the Justices of the Peace there, requiring them to take care " That 
every Taverne, Innkeeper, Ordinary Keeper, Common Cook, and 
Alehouse Keeper do once every* year become bound unto His 
Majesty in the sum of ^20 not to dress, or suffer to be dressed, or 
directly or indirectly to buy to sell again any venison, red or 
fallow, or any hare, pheasant, partridge, or heath-poult." This 
injunction was formulated by the Earl of Holland, and is dated 
Newmarket, April, 1636. The last visit of Charles I. to Sir John 
Carleton at Cheveley took place in the ensuing month of October, 
and, although no details of it transpire, we may depend the 
preservation of the game was frequently a leading subject with 
them. In 1637 the Court did not go to Newmarket, but it seems 
Sir John continued to fulfil his duty during part of that year to the 
King's satisfaction, as we hear of no complaints to the contrary. 


26 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. Sir John died in London November 7, 1637. He was the eldest 

„ " „ son and heir of George Carleton, Esquire, of Holcombe, by 

Death of Sir fe . . 

ohn Carleton, Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert Brockett, of 

Bart. Brockett Hall, Herts. He inherited, under the will of his uncle 

Sir Dudley Carleton, Viscount Dorchester, that nobleman's estate 

at Brightwell, Oxfordshire. He married in February, 1624-25, 

Anne, daughter of Sir R. Houghton, of Houghton, Lancashire, and 

relict of Sir John Cotton, Bart., of Landwade, Cambridgeshire, by 

whom he had one son and two daughters, viz. : George, his heir ; 

Anne, born at Cheveley, October 29, 1627 ; and Catherine, born at 

Cheveley in 1630. His widow survived until May 17, 1671, and 

was interred in Landwade Church. Sir John's only son, Sir George 

Carleton, died, unmarried, in 1650, when the baronetcy became 


The Jermyn Family. 

During the time the Cheveley estate belonged to the Jermyn 
family the property was associated with many merry scenes in the 
merry days of the Merry Monarch. By some mutual arrangement 
Lady Carleton occupied the Hall, and continued to reside there, 
except when the Court was at Newmarket, or when it was required 
by the new owners, until her death in 167 1. In those days royal 
visits to Cheveley, particularly when the Royal Family was at the 
Palace, were so frequent and informal as to cause hardly any 
passing notice. It was about this time Syberecht painted the 
quaint and beautiful picture of the structure as it then stood — 
indeed, as it stands re-built to-day. Syberecht was discovered in 
his native Antwerp by the volatile George Villiers, 2nd Duke of 
Buckingham (during his exile in the dismal Interregnum), by 
whom he was brought to England, where he painted many 
pastoral views in the style of Wouvermans, and he was even 
addicted to the white horse, commonly supposed to be the ex- 
clusive artistic trade mark or peculiarity of his great master. This 
picture of Cheveley is about eight feet in length by seven feet in 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 27 

breadth. In the centre the Hall stands out in subdued relief, 
forming, with the stables in the rear, an oblong building. Instead 
of the carriage sweep which now goes round the lawn, facing the 
grand entrance, the approach led straight up to the door of the 
mansion. At the extremity of this approach is a state carriage of 
the period and six white horses, in pairs. The horse on the near 
side of the first pair is mounted by a postillion wearing a white or 
buff jacket with scarlet facings, and a beaver hat. The coachman 
on the box and a footman standing by wear a similar livery. On 
the right, in front of the carriage, are a lady and gentleman on 
horseback. Coming from the house, and approaching the carriage, 
a lady and gentleman, hand in hand, preceded by three dogs, are 
followed by three other ladies walking together and two more 
gentlemen are behind them. On the left of the carriage are 
four saddled horses, two of them with ladies' saddles, and close by 
are two gentlemen, hat in hand, waiting the arrival of the approach- 
ing party. The famous terrace, with its eighteen double vases, is 
depicted as it stands to-day. The gardens are as beautiful as they 
are at present, but we miss the pyramid steps that then led into 
the park, and the fallow deer which were dispersed when Henry 
Jermyn was attainted in 1690. The landscape fairly depicts the 
sylvan beauties of the scene, showing Newmarket reposing in the 
valley beneath, Ely Cathedral faint on the dim horizon — an ideal 
Arcadia to all, bar the brace of partridges, over which a wicked 
hawk is towering. 

The founder of this family, the Chevalier de Jermyn, married 
Agnes, sister and co-heir of Thomas de Rushbrooke, with whom he 
acquired the manor of Rushbrook, co. Suffolk. From him 
descended Sir Thomas Jermyn, who was appointed by James I., 
February 6, 1614-15, to preserve His Majesty's game of hare, 
heron, duck, mallard, &c, within twelve miles compass of New- 
market, and to punish offenders " as well by course of justice as 
by taking from them their greyhounds, beagles, guns, bows, setting 
dogs, trammel nets, &c." This was his first step at Court, which 
E 2 

28 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Sir Thomas 

Henry Jermyn, 

Baron Jermyn, 

Earl of 

St. Albans. 

he subsequently followed up by becoming Treasurer to the. House- 
hold of Charles I. He had two sons — Thomas, 2nd Baron Jermyn, 
and Henry, who acquired the Cheveley estate at the time now 
under review. 

This accomplished courtier, soldier, diplomatist, and states- 
man, filled many important and onerous offices during the reigns of 
Charles I. and Charles II. He was Master of the Horse to 
Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles I., and subsequently 
presided over her establishment for many years. Her enemies 
accused her of having been unfaithful to Charles I., and asserted 
that after his death she secretly united herself to her Master 
of the Horse and reputed lover. Unfortunately there was an 
element of innate French gaiety in her manner and conduct which, 
though harmless in itself, was quite sufficient to give some 
warrant to the accusations brought against her by hypocritical 
puritanical traducers, seconded by the envy and malice of 
disappointed courtiers, who should have known that no act of 
infidelity on her part could be substantiated. There is, however, 
no doubt of Jermyn's zeal, ability, and devotion in following the 
fortunes of the Royal Family during the Rebellion. Sir William 
Dugdale says: "He spared neither pains nor charge in obtaining 
arms and ammunition from foreign parts ; besides the exposal of 
himself to no little hazard, in attending on the royal person into 
England ; landing her at Bridlington, in Yorkshir : ; and thence, 
with all the power he could raise, in conducting her safe, through 
the enemy's quarters, unto His Majesty at Oxford. As also, since 
that time, attending her again out of England ; and with great 
fidelity and prudence, governing her small family, in those woeful 
times, for full sixteen years." 

This Henry Jermyn was elevated to the peerage, September 8, 
1643, as Baron Jermyn of St. Edmundsbury, co. Suffolk, with 
remainder in default of male issue, to his elder brother, Thomas 
Jermyn. While abroad he was employed in several embassies by 
Charles II. In consideration of all his faithful services he was 


Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 29 

created by patent, dated at Breda, April 27, 1660, Earl of 
St. Albans, co. Hertford. This creation having been made before 
the Restoration, was technically considered informal — the patent 
not having passed the great seal — but it was confirmed and 
enrolled by order of the Master of the Rolls, August 9, 1663.* 
He was subsequently made a Knight of the Garter, and constituted 
Lord Chamberlain of the Household. He died unmarried in 1683, 
when the earldom of St. Albans became extinct, and the barony 
of Jermyn devolved upon (his deceased brother Thomas's son) 
his nephew, Thomas Jermyn, who died, without male heirs, in 
1703, when the barony of Jermyn of St. Edmundsbury also became 

Soon after the Restoration, Lord St. Albans was appointed 
Ambassador Extraordinary to Louis XIV., at whose Court he 
maintained an almost regal establishment. During this mission he 
was invested with and influenced many negotiations with Courts 
throughout the continent, and was, to all intents and purposes, for 
the time being, the presiding genius in the foreign affairs of this 
country. Meanwhile he did not neglect his personal interests at 
home. He obtained various rich sinecures, among others a grant 
of the office of Registrar of the Court of Chancery, together with 
all the fees, allowances, privileges, and advantages whatsoever 
belonging to the said office and usually enjoyed therewith. He 
had the supervision of the military establishments of the Channel 
Islands, where his brother Thomas, Lord Jermyn, was the de 
facto Governor, although his appointment was nominally restricted 
to Jersey alone. For this service they drew very large sums from 
the Treasury; but it must be confessed, to their honour, that, by 
their policy, they probably saved the Channel Islands from the 
fate that befel Dunquirk. He also obtained a grant from the King 
of " several slips of ground in St. James's Fields," a property 
which now represents a rent roll of half a million sterling per 
annum ! He was chief trustee of the honours, manors, and lands of 
* Patent Roll, 12 Charles II., Part xl., No. 7. 


His emolu- 

30 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

His Emolu- 

Earl St. Albans 




The Royal 
Jewel House. 

Catherine, Queen Consort, her Majesty, curiously enough, having 
had a rent charge annuity on the manor of Saxton Hall, which is a 
parcel of the Cheveley Estate. He was likewise custodian of the 
Park and Palace of Greenwich, and steward of the royal manors 
there, including Deptford, the Isle of Dogs, &c. 

During the period Lord St. Albans represented his sovereign at 
the Court of the Grand Monarch he seldom came to England 
except during the Newmarket race meetings, which he rarely 
missed attending. At other times he was ably represented by his 
favourite nephew and successor, Henry Jermyn, afterwards Lord 
Dover, of whom more anon. Eventually, when Lord St. Albans 
was recalled, he was considered to have admirably acquitted him- 
self in all the intricate and onerous duties that fell to his lot. He 
was received by the King with open arms, and was henceforth 
looked up to as one of the most important personages at Court. 
He was soon again in official harness, having been appointed Lord 
High Chamberlain. We now find him domiciled at Cheveley, 
surrounded by a host of brilliant admirers and others, where he 
kept open house to all comers, dispensing hospitality with all the 
refinement and taste which was peculiar to the magnificent Court 
of Louis XIV. 

In his capacity of Lord Chamberlain of the Royal Household, 
we get a curious insight of the various duties appertaining to this 
department to which he had to attend, especially when the Court 
was at Newmarket, and when he himself was domiciled at Cheveley, 
where we may depend he was frequently beseiged by courtiers and 
others soliciting his patronage, in hope of sharing in the good 
things, which were obtainable at those race meetings with less 
ceremony and trouble than at any other place or upon any other 
occasion. Thus we find Lord St. Albans issuing a series of 
warrants, in the King's name and by his authority, to various other 
departments relating to a curious collection of things. The Master 
of the Royal Jewel House was authorised to prepare and deliver to 
Henry Coventry, Ambassador Extraordinary to the King of Sweden, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 31 

5893 ounces of white plate and 1066 ounces of gilt plate for the 
use of his establishment during that embassy. The Earl of Sunder- 
land, Ambassador to the King of Spain, the Earl of Peterborough, 
Ambassador to the Emperor (Vienna), a like quantity; and Sir 
George Downing, who, being only an Envoy Extraordinary to the 
United Provinces of the Netherlands, received considerably less. 
As a general rule this plate was only lent to the Ambassadors for 
the honour and dignity of their establishments during their 
embassies, and was returnable to the Jewel Office when their 
respective missions terminated ; but it frequently followed, par- 
ticularly when an Ambassador's diplomacy found favour with the 
King, a " discharge " was given whereby the plate became the 
absolute property of the recipient by royal will and favour.* Apart 
from establishment plate, vast demands were made on the Royal 
Jewel House. When the King became a godfather, 1 20 ounces of 
gilt plate was given as his Majesty's gift at the christening of the 
child. A chain and call of silver to Ambrose Lovet, boatswain of 
the King's yacht, of the value of ^50 or thereabouts, " to be given 
as a free gift from his Majestie unto him for his good and faithful 
service." Pittman, Sergeant of the Royal Buckhounds, " one 
silver hunting home of the quantitye of forty ounces as a guift 
from his Ma tie " Ten thousand ounces of white plate to the Duke 
of Monmouth. The Right Reverend Father in God, the Lord 
Bishop of Salisbury, Chancellor of the Most Noble Order of the 
Garter, a chain of gold weighing twelve ounces or thereabout. 
A chain and medal of gold of the value of £160 or thereabouts as 
a gift from the King to Mons. Botson, envoy from the Duke of 
Courland. A similar gift to Don Franciso Roiz, secretary to the 
Spanish Embassy. The Physician in Ordinary to the Queen 
100 ounces of gilt plate " over and above his usual allowance 
unto him in regard of his extraordinary duty service and 

* Foreign ambassadors accredited to the Court of St. James's invariably 
received a chain and medal of gold as a gift from the King of the value of 
,£200. The secretaries of embassies also were presented with a similar gift of 
the value of £110. 



Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


The Royal 
Jewel House. 
1672. , 

attendance at Newmarket and Cheveley." Joseph and Philip 
Roetiers, engravers -to his Majesty, a chain and medal of gold, 
each medal weighing five and a quarter ounces of fine gold, and 
each a chain of crown gold weighing twenty ounces as a gift 
from his Majesty to them. 

Next we come to the first present given by Charles II. to 
Madamosille " Keroualle " (Querouaille), afterwards Duchess of 
Portsmouth, from whom descends " Glorious Goodwood." It 
consisted of 6730 ounces of silver plate, and was issued out of 
the Jewel Office, pursuant to the King's command, by warrant 
of Lord St. Albans, dated Cheveley, Newmarket, October 8th, 

Appended are the several articles with the weight of each : 

Silver Plate, Including Fashion. 

12 great dishes 

8 great plates for the side dishes 

8 middling dishes ... 

8 middling plates 

12 little dishes 

1 2 little plates for bottom dishes . 
12 little plates for enterements . 
18 plates for pottage... 
48 ordinary plates ... 
12 spoons 

12 forks 

12 knives 

12 little salt sellars ... 

1 2 great salt sellars 

2 ewers 

3 basins, whereof two oval, 1 roun 

2 sugar boxes 

2 vinegar pots 
2 mustard pots 
2 flagons, with their chains 

4 coolers 

6 candlesticks 

Carried forward ... 


















Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 33 

Silver Plate, Including Fashion. 



Brought forward 

4 middling ones 

2 little saucers 

weighing . . 

• 4969 

Henry Earl 
St. Albans 

i boiling pot, with cover and handle ... 


i silver ladle 


i skillet 


4 bearing cups 

2 chaffing dishes 

2 pair of snuffers, with chains and pans 



i porringer, with a cover... 

i silver gilt cadanet with knife, spoon, 


and fork 


i silver cistern 




Everyone has heard of Colonel Blood's attempt to steal the 
Regalia from the Tower of London, and how it was prevented 
after a fierce onslaught between him and the custodians of the 
priceless treasure. By one of those Cheveley warrants Lord 
St. Albans certified having received at the Jewel House from 
Sir Robert Viner, His Majesty's goldsmith, certain portions 
of plate, &c, amongst which were the king's crown and globe, 
" being both broken in ye late attempt." These were now 
repaired, the stones new set, and three small diamonds 
added, which had been lost, at a cost of ^"145 (March 14, 

The staff of office for the Earl Marshal is another curiosity : — 

Ear : Marshall's 

These are to signify vnto you his Ma ties pleasure 
that you prepare & deliver vnto the Right Honv ble 
the Earle of Norwich Earle Marshall of England, a 
Staffe of Office of Earle Marshall of Gold To be made two foot foure inches 
in length & two inches in compasse, to bee enameld at each end black, the 
length of three quarters of an inch And to have his Ma ties Armes 
enamelled at the one end of the Staffe And the Armes of the Earle 
Marshall enamelled at the other end, All which to bee of the Value of 
sixty pounds, or thereabouts, This being as a guift from his Ma tie vnto the 


34 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. Earl Marshall And this shall be your Warrant Given vnder my hand thi 

seauenth day of October, 1672. 


Various To S r - Gilbert Talbot K nt - 

Warrants. Master & Treasurer of 

his Ma ties Jewell house 

and in his absence to the 

Officers there. 

In the 24th yeare of his Ma ties Reigne. 
Court at Newmarket, 

St. Alban. 

Turning trom these to another set of the Cheveley-St. Albans 
warrants, we find his lordship issuing orders by the king's command 
to provide the royal gamekeeper at .Newmarket with a new livery 
(I.) : scenery to be borrowed from the theatre at Whitehall for a 
performance by the French opera at Bridge-street Theatre (II.) : 
New colours for the Scots Guards (III.) : A new bed for the king 
(IV.) : A list of officials to attend the king during the October 
meeting, 1672 (V.) : and his order concerning the appropriation of 
the rooms in the Palace during the royal sojourn there on that 
occasion (VI.). 


These are to signife vnto you his Ma ties pleasure that you provide & 
deliver or cause to be provided & delivered vnto George Leader his Ma ties 
Gamekeeper at Newmarket so much Bastard Scarlett & other necessaries 
with the letters C. R. embroidered before & behind & also that you cause 
it to be lyned being for a livery for him for ye yeare 1672 & to be made 
after the same manner & fashion as any other his Ma ties Gamekeepers ever 
had & enjoyned. And this with his hand for ye recept thereof shalbe 
yo Warrant. Given under my hand this 27th day of April], 1672. 

St. Alban. 
To the R'- Hono ble Ralph Montagu Esq. 
Master of his Ma ties Great Wardrobe 
or to his Deputy there. 


These are to signifie vnto you His Ma ties pleasure that you cause to be 
delivered vnto Mons Grabu or to such as he shall appoint such of the 
scenes remayning in the Theatre at Whitehall as shalbe vsefull for the 
french Opera at the Theatre in Bridge street and the said Mons Grabu is 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



to returne them againe safely after fourteen dayes tyme into the Theatre .Cheveley. 

at Weitehall. And this shalbe your Warrant. Given under my hand at ' 

Newmarket this 27th day of March 1674 in the 26th year of His Ma' in Hen T Earl 

Reign. ST. Alban. St ' Albans " 

To Sir Christopher Wren Varioia 

1 Warrants 

Surveyor General of the 
Workes to His Majesty. 


These are to signifie vnto you his Ma ties Pleasure that you provide and 
deliver vnto the Right hon ble the Lord Duras Two Colours of Crymson 
Damaske each an Ell and [a] quarter in Depth & an Ell in Breadth each 
Embroydered with the King's Letters & Crowne as the Colours belonging 
to ye Duke of Monmouth's Troope of Guards & the Mottoe vnder it & also 
each Colours to be embroydered about the sides & Silver & Gold fringe & 
Tassels to them & also a staffe to each Colour & all things belonging to it 
& two red leather Case for the Colours. And this shall be your Warrant. 
Dated Jan. 20th, 1672 [-3]. St. Alban. 

To the Right hon ble Ralph Montague Esq. 
Master of H. M. Great Wardrobe &c. 


Wheras the down bed you formerly provided for His Majesty at 
Newmarket is musty and unserviceable these are therefore to signify unto 
you his Majesty's pleasure that you forthwith provide or cause to be 
provided and delivered unto Philip Kynnersley esquire Yeoman of His 
Majesty's removing wardrobe of beds one new down bed and bolster stuffed 
with sweet and good feathers &c. Feb. 18, 1673. 

St. Alban. 

To the Right Hon. Ralph Montagu 
Master of H. M. Great Wardrobe. 

A list of those that are to attend his Majesty at Newmarket 
October 3rd, 1672 : — 

The Master of the Robes and 3 officers, the Privy Purse ; 1 esquire 

of the body, 2 pages of honour, 2 barbers, pages of the bedchamber, 

1 gentleman usher of the privy chamber, 2 gentlemen of the privy chamber, 

1 groom of the privy chamber; 1 gentleman usher daily waiter of the 

P 2 

36 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. presence chamber, i gentleman usher quarter waiter, i page of the presence, 
i physician, i surgeon, i apothecary ; 2 sergeants at arms ; the Groom 

1672-1673. porter and his men; 2 chaplins, 1 closet keeper; Captain Howard, 
Lieutenant of the Yeomen of the Guard, Mr. Sackville, ensign, 1 yeoman 
usher, 12 Yeomen of the Guard, i groom of the chamber, 2 messengers, the 
keeper of the guns ; and 1 laundress. 



The King's House at Newmarket containing 
great thus possessed : 

His Majesty's own rooms in all... 

His offices as kitchens, cellars, &c 

H.R.H. the Duke of York 

The Duke of Buckingham 

small and 


Whereof 15 in the new building; 3 in the old building and 11 in a 
small brick building by itself, which 1 1 rooms Mr. Wacklin possesses and 
those dementions are (viz) 2 rooms 13 and 11 : 2 other rooms 10 and 13 : 
which 4 rooms have chimnies : 2 rooms more of 8 and 10 foot and 2 garrets. 

The Lord Chamberlain ... 

Mr. May 3 rooms and 3 small rooms ... 

Mr. Hyde in the old buildings ... 

The grooms of the Bedchamber 

The chaplains to eat in ... 

The pages of the backstairs to eat in . . . 

Mr. Chiffinch small rooms 

The gentlemen of the privy chamber to eat in 

The clerk of the kitchen... 

The Master Cook... 

Over the kitchen undisposed of because they must be partly 

put in the kitchen to mend it 
Over the stables one long gallery to be finished and divided 


Over the stables almost finished 

The lodgings in the Greyhound in the Duke of Monmouth's possession* 
1 cellar, 1 parlour 15 feet square, one kitchen 12 and 10 feet and a small 
room 7 feet square ; over these 1 large room 19 feet square, 1 other 
chamber 15 feet square; a closet 15 feet square; and 3 small garrets 
(total) 10, and other rooms. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 37 

With a brief allusion to the fruit and game, which evidently 
retained the reputation it acquired in the reign of Henry VIII., 
as we find those luxuries were sent every season from Cheveley to 
Somerset House for the table of the Dowager Queen, by whom 
they were highly appreciated, this part of the subject must be 
brought to a close. Lord St. Albans died January 4, 1683, and 
on the 10th of that month was buried in the south side of the 
chancel of the church at Rushbrook. It may, perhaps, be 
interesting to note that because he was shrouded in linen contrary 
to the Act for burying in woollen only, a warrant was issued by a 
justice of the peace, by virtue of which 50s. was paid to the 
informer, and 505. to the poor of the parish, upon the Sunday 
next following.* 

We now come to the career of Henry Jermyn, the favourite 
nephew of Henry, Earl of St. Albans, by whom he was left the 
Cheveley estate. He was next brother to Thomas, second Baron 
Jermyn, and was himself elevated to the peerage May 13, 1685, as 
Baron Jermyn of Dover, co. Kent. He was born in 1636, died at 
Cheveley April 6, 1708, and was buried in the Franciscan 
monastery at Bruges. Little is known of him until the Restoration, 
when he became a prominent personage at the Court of 
St. James's, where he was a great favourite, and soon acquired 
notoriety by his gallantries and prowess as a horseman. He was 
appointed Master of the Horse to James, Duke of York, and in 
this capacity presided with consummate ability over the Duke's 

* By the provision of the statute, 24 Charles II., c. 3, passed in the year 1672, 
entitled " An Act for burying in Woollen," it was enacted that from and after 
August 1 st in that year no person or persons shall be buryed in any "shiit 
shift sheete or shroud or any thing whatsoever made or mingled with flax 
hemp silke haire gold or silver or in any stuffe or thing other than what is 
made of sheepes wooll onely or to be putt into any coffin' lined or faced with 
any sort of cloath or stuffe or any other thing whatsoever that is made of any 
materiall but sheeps wooll onely " upon the forfeiture of ^5 recoverable on the 
goods and chattels of the person or persons so buried one moiety of which 
shall be to the use and benefit of the poor of the parish and the other moiety 
to the informer. This Act was further extended and confirmed by the 
30 Charles II., c. 3. 


Henry Jermyn 
Baron Dover. 


Master of the 

Horse to the 

Duke of York. 

38 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



Master of the 

Horse to the 

Duke of York. 

His gallantries. 

stud, and at the same time supervised the numerous packs of 
hounds which His Royal Highness maintained in those days in 
state of efficiency quite unknown in the King's establishments. If 
we can rely on De Grammont's " Memoirs," this once owner of 
Cheveley is reputed to have been a commonplace person with a 
large head, small legs, pleasing features, affected in his carriage 
and behaviour. This, however, can hardly be accepted as an 
impartial representation, as no individual thus portrayed could have 
acquired and sustained the popularity he so long enjoyed at the 
brilliant Court of Charles II. There is no doubt he found favour 
with the fair sex to such an extent as to be triumphant in all his 
intrigues. One of these successful amours occasioned a duel with 
the Hon. Thomas Howard, in which Jermyn received three wounds, 
and was carried from the scene of the encounter to his uncle's 
town house with very little signs of life. 

In consequence of this misfortune Jermyn was obliged to 
retire to Cheveley until his wounds became healed — a consumma- 
tion which was soon effected by the salubrious peculiarities of that 
charming locality. On his reappearance at Court soon after, he 
was cordially received by the fair sex, with whom he was a greater 
favourite than ever. Though his reputation was somewhat 
diminished, though his head was deemed to be larger and his legs 
more slender than ever, yet Miss Jennings, one of the Court 
beauties, thought she had never seen a man so perfect, and, yield- 
ing to her destiny, fell in love with him. It is said he was not in 
the least surprised at this conquest, for his heart very soon had as 
great a share in it as his vanity, and he quietly enjoyed the happi- 
ness of seeing the inclinations of the prettiest and one of the most 
extraordinary ladies in England declared in his favour. Many 
courtiers now complimented Miss Jennings on having reduced to 
this situation the terror of husbands and the plague of lovers, and 
fervent were the hopes of many that the reformed rake would become 
a model husband. But all these expectations proved fallacious, partly 
owing to the following circumstances. For a wager of 500 guineas 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Jermyn undertook to ride twenty miles on a horse, on a high road, 
in an hour. Up to that time this feat of horsemanship, though 
often attempted, was never accomplished ; nevertheless, he was 
successful, and won the bet. His courage and prowess in the 
saddle had far exceeded the strength of his constitution, which 
must have been impaired at the time, and in the exertion to win 
the wager he got a violent fever, by which he was again prostrated. 
During his illness Miss Jennings proceeded with the Court to 
Tunbridge Wells, where she soon forgot poor Jermyn, and eventu- 
ally married a Mr. George Hamilton. His sojourn at Cheveley on 
this occasion soon put its fortunate owner on his legs again, and 
when he quite recovered his health he volunteered to serve in the 
expedition to Guinea, under the command of Prince Rupert. 

Unlike most of the prominent courtiers of his time, Henry 
Jermyn does not appear to have participated in, nor to have coveted, 
any of the good things that were to be had by royal will and favour 
at the venal court of the Merry Monarch. Indeed, we only find 
one pecuniary grant made to him, in May, 1661 — a curious one — 
of " His Majesty's moiety or share of the French debt contracted 
at Constantinople, which was due to Lawrence Greene, late of 
London, merchant, deceased, and by him bequeathed to the pre- 
tended Parliament for the service of the Commonwealth, granting 
him power to sue for the same with such non-obstantes and 
clauses as are usual in grants of like nature." As his uncle's heir 
and favourite he was in affluent circumstances to indulge in all the 
enjoyments for the time. His career on the Turf was not identified 
with heavy betting; nevertheless, his skill as a jockey was highly 
esteemed by his contemporaries. He had the honour of beating 
Charles II. (owners up) in a match run on that part of the 
Cheveley estate now known as the old Cambridgeshire course, for 
a cup and cover, as shown in the accompanying engraving, taken 
from the original drawing of the match, attributed to Francis 
Barlow. As before mentioned, he superintended the magnificent 
festivities so famous at Cheveley during his uncle's lifetime ; and 

40 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. after he himself came into the estate there was no diminution 

Henry Jermyn 

the hospitality or the pleasure attending a visit to it, especially 
Baron Dover, during the race meetings. Unhappily very few years elapsed 
before the demon of discord played havoc with those gay and 
joyous scenes. When James II. ascended the throne, the path of 
his former Master of the Horse was beset with political and (what 
was worse) sectarian animosity. The relations between the new 
king and Jermyn became more close and more important, so much 
so that the latter was now elevated to the peerage, and was 
invested with trying ministerial functions. 
Lord Dover We have now to do with Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover, 

and James II. the po i; t i c j an an d trusted partisan of James II. Partly in 
consequence of his religious belief, and principally by his 
adherence to the cause of James II., Lord Dover became 
obnoxious to the faction of the Prince of Orange, who were very 
aggressive in Cambridgeshire towards the end of the year 1688. 
On December 12th the news reached London that the "mobile 
at Cambridge were up," and had gone to meet " their breathern 
of Bury St. Edmonds upon Newmarket Heath, with the design 
to visit Lord Dover's house at Cheveley." The result of this 
"visit" transpired a few days after, when it became known that 
" multitude having demolished Lord Dover's chappel, at his 
house at Cheveley, and torn down all the furniture and burnt it, 
but having some money given them, were restrained from spoiling 
the house ; they then marched to Dr. Templer's, at Balsam, in 
search of the Bishop of St. David's, where they found his 
lordship in a disguise, and carried him to Linton. The next 
day they mounted him on a paltry horse without a saddle, and 
having only a small cord for a bridle, and so led him in a 
triumphant manner to Cambridge, where they obliged the 
magistrates to secure his lordship in the castle." 

When this alarming news was confirmed in London, the con- 
sternation at the Court was intense. No one knew better than the 
king that such a manifestation, enacted at the sumptuous seat of 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 41 

one of his Lords of the Treasury and personal confidant, and, 
moreover, at a place where the Jermyn family were deservedly 
revered and respected, was fraught with the most serious conse- 
quences. Instead of boldly confronting his enemies, and adopting 
vigorous measures to uphold his crown and dignity, he igno- 
miniously deserted his cause, and precipitatedly fled a fugitive to 
France. After the flight of James II., Lord Dover escaped into 
Ireland, where he joined the Jacobite leaders, and for a time 
endeavoured to organise the incongruous adherents of King 
James, who were then in the course of mobilisation there. 
This object he was utterly unable to accomplish, owing to the 
discordant elements with which he had to deal ; and, becoming 
disgusted with the incompetence of those with whom he was 
officially associated, he soon relinquished his trust, and retired 
from the contest. 

Antecedent to these events a rural incident occurred at 
Cheveley in connection with a little addition made to the park, by 
diverting and enclosing a part of the adjoining high road, and 
making a new road in lieu of it. 

It is a remarkable coincidence (and quite unknown at the 
time) that when a recent application was made to the Justices at 
Quarter Sessions for permission to enclose and divert a short part 
of the high road running by Cheveley Park, and to substitute a 
new road in lieu of it, that a somewhat similar permission was 
granted in the same locality about 220 years previously. In the 
recent case the little affair was accomplished, by permission of the 
local authorities, in about six months. In the former one it took 
nearly four years to obtain the concession. The King having 
been approached, instructed his Attorney-General to issue a writ, 
dated September 19, 1671, to the Sheriff of Cambridgeshire, 
commanding him to hold a sworn enquiry on the merits of the 
case. This investigation took place at Cheveley, October 23, 
167 1, and the patent authorising the proposed enclosure and 
deviation was granted June 30, 1675. All the documents were 


thereon in 

[671 and 1896. 

1 67 1 and 1896. 

42 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. registered at the time, and are still preserved in the Court of 

Proceedings Chancer 7. viz - =~ 
thereon in (I.) 

The King's writ, by his Attorney-General, to John Bradbourne, Esq., 
the High Sheriff :— 

Charles II., by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. To the Sheriff of Cambridge 
greeting, we command you that by the oath of honest and lawful men of 
your county, by whom the truth of the matter may better be known, 
diligently to enquire if it be to the damage or prejudice of us or of others 
if we grant to Henry Jermyn, Esquire, that he may enclose a certain road 
in Cheveley in your county, which leads from the village of Cheveley afore- 
said towards a certain town called Newmarket by the park {vivariam) of 
the aforesaid Henry in Cheveley aforesaid. And the same so enclosed may 
hold to him and his heirs for the enlargement of his park for ever so that 
he may make in the place of that road a certain other road of the same 
length and breadth in the soil of the said Henry there as fitting to those 
traversing by the same road, or not. And if it be to the damage or injury 
of us or any other then to what damage or injury of us or of any other, and 
if so in what respect. And how much that road so to be held may contain 
in itself in number of perches and feet of land as well in length as in 
breadth. And the inquisition thereof distinctly and openly made do you 
send to us in our Court of Chancery under your seal and the seal of those 
by whom it shall be made without delay and this writ. Witness ourself at 
Westminster the nineteenth day of September in the twenty-third year of 
our reign. Adderley. 

Endorsed. By Heneage Finch, Knight and Baronet, Attorney-General of 
the Lord the King. 

Execution of this writ appears in a certain inquisition to this 
writ annexed. John Bradbourne, Esq., Sheriff. 

The High Sheriff to His Majesty's Attorney-General — 

C Inquisition indented taken at Cheveley Hall within the 
Cambridge. ■] Parish of Cheveley in the county aforesaid the 23rd day 

( of October in the year of the reign of our Lord Charles II., 
by the Grace of God now King of England, &c, the 23rd and in the year 
of our Lord 167 1, before me John Bradbourne esquire Sheriff of the County 


thereon in 

1671 and 189 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 43 

aforesaid by virtue of a writ of the said Lord the King of ad quod damnum, Cheveley. 
directed to me and to this inquisition annexed by the oath of Thomas Buck 
esquire, Thomas Kirby gentleman, Walter Pratt gentleman, John Folkes 
gentleman, Thomas Cooke gentleman, William Nelson gentleman, John 
. . sle* gentleman, John Haylock gentleman, Edward Webb gentleman, 
John Curtys gentleman, Oliver Morden gentleman and John Linsdell 
gentleman, honest and lawful men of my bailiwick who being sworn and 
charged say upon their oath that it will not be to the damage or prejudice 
of the Lord the King or of others if the said Lord the King grant to Henry 
Jermyn esquire named in the aforesaid writ that he Henry Jermyn may 
enclose all that road in Cheveley in the county aforesaid mentioned in the 
aforesaid writ which leads from the village of Cheveley aforesaid towards a 
certain town called Newmarket in the same writ likewise specified from the 
south east corner of the Park of the aforesaid Henry Jermyn in Cheveley 
aforesaid called Cheveley Park named in the aforesaid writ up to a certain 
corner of the Park aforesaid called Warriner's Corner by and under the 
pales of the aforesaid Park of the aforesaid Henry in Cheveley aforesaid 
called Cheveley Park, and the same so enclosed may hold to him and his 
heirs for the enlargement of his Park aforesaid mentioned in the writ afore- 
said for ever, so that he shall make in the place of that road at his own 
proper cost another road of the breadth of forty feet from his own earth 
and soil. Which road so newly to be made shall lead from a certain other 
road there called Ashley way by and next the east end of a certain close of 
pasture called Farmers' Close and so in by and across a certain arable field 
of the aforesaid Henry in Cheveley aforesaid lying on the east side of the 
road aforesaid so to be enclosed up to the aforesaid corner of the Park 
aforesaid called Warriner's Corner and so into the aforesaid road leading 
towards Newmarket aforesaid. And that the aforesaid new road so like- 
wise to be made at the cost of the said Henry Jermyn may be fenced out 
and leveled [deplanata) and may be made open for all lawful subjects of 
the Lord the King traversing as in a common high road at all times to walk, 
ride and use with their horses and carriages and to lead and drive their 
cattle whatsoever in by and across the road so newly to be made and 
appointed namely from the aforesaid other road leading from Cheveley 
aforesaid towards the road called Ashley way by and next the east end of 
the close called Farmers' Close and so in by and across the aforesaid arable 
field of the aforesaid Henry in Cheveley lying on the east side of the road 
aforesaid so to be enclosed up to the aforesaid corner of the park called 
Warriner's Corner and so into the aforesaid road leading towards 

* Illegible. 
G 2 

44 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



thereon in 

[671 and 1896. 

Newmarket. And the jurors aforesaid further say upon their oath that the 
aforesaid road so newly to be made there shall be fit for those passing as 
the ancient road so to be enclosed is now fit for those passing. And that 
the aforesaid road so to be enclosed contains in length 264 perches and 
4 feet and in breadth in certain parts thereof 50 feet and in other parts 
thereof 40 feet and in other parts thereof 20 feet of land. In witness 
whereof as well I the aforesaid Sheriff as the jurors aforesaid have set our 
seals to this inquisition on the day and year above mentioned. 
John Bradbourne, Esq., 



Grant to him and 

his heirs to 

Henry Jermyn, Esquire. 

The King to all &c. greeting. WHEREAS 
by an Inquisition taken by our command at 
Cheveley Hall within the parish of Cheveley 
in the County of Cambridge on the 23rd day 
of October in the 23rd year of our reign [1671], by the oath of honest and 
lawful men of that county, It is found that it will not be to the loss or 
prejudice to us or to any of our subjects if we grant to Henry Jermyn, 
Esquire, that he may enclose all that road [regium viam) in Cheveley in the 
county aforesaid which leads from the village of Cheveley aforesaid towards 
the town called Newmarket from the south east corner of the park of the 
aforesaid Henry Jermyn in Cheveley aforesaid called Cheveley Park up 
to a certain corner of the said Park called Warreners Corner by and under 
the pailings of the aforesaid Park and the same so enclosed may hold to 
him and his heirs for ever for the enlargement of his Park aforesaid. So 
that in place of that road the aforesaid Henry Jermyn should make at his 
own proper cost another road of the breadth of forty feet [quadraginta 
pedum) from his own soil and earth, which way so newly to be made shall 
lead from a certain other way leading from Cheveley up to a certain other 
way there called Ashley by and near the east end of a certain close of 
pasture called Farmer's Close and so in by and across a certain arable field 
of the aforesaid Henry Jermyn in Cheveley lying on the east side of the 
way aforesaid so to be enclosed up to the said corner of the said Park called 
Warreners Corner, And so into the aforesaid way leading towards New- 
market. And that the said new way so likewise to be made at the cost of 
the said Henry Jermyn may be fenced out and used by all our loyal subjects 
as a common highway at all times with horses, carriages and cattle, namely, 
from the said way leading from Cheveley towards the way called Ashley 
way by and next the east end of the aforesaid close called Farmers Close, 

Sporting mid Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 45 

And so in by and across the aforesaid arable field of the aforesaid 
Henry in Cheveley lying on the east side of the road aforesaid so to be 
enclosed up to the corner of the park called Warreners Corner and so into 
the aforesaid road leading towards Newmarket, and that the said way 
newly to be made there shall be so fit for those passing as the ancient road 
so to be enclosed is now fit for those passing. And that aforesaid road so 
to be enclosed contains in length 264 perches and 4 feet and in breadth, 
in certain parts thereof 50 feet and in other parts thereof 40 feet and in 
other parts thereof 20 feet of land, as by Inquisition aforesaid remaining on 
record in the Court of Chancery more fully appears. Know ye now that 
We of our special grace and of our certain knowledge and mere motion 
have granted and given licence and by these presents for ourselves heirs 
and successors do grant and give licence to the aforesaid Henry Jermyn to 
obstruct and enclose the aforesaid road and may hold the same so 
obstructed and enclosed to him his heirs and assigne without hindrance 
or impediment of us our heirs or successors or of any our justices escheators 
sheriffs or other bailiffs or ministers whatsoever so that the said Henry 
Jermyn may cause to be made in the place of that road a certain other road 
on his own soil there so competent and sufficient to those passing by the 
same way as is aforesaid. In witness whereof &c. Witness the King 
at Westminster the 30th day of June. By Writ of Privy Seal &c. 
27 Charles II. [a.d. 1675]. 



thereon in 

1 67 .1 and 1896 

In connection with Lord Dover's military services we find the 
following particulars, viz. : 

Appointed Captain of Horse Guards July 7, 1666. (This 
was " Prince Rupert's regiment of 
„ Captain of " non-regimented Horse con- 

sisting of 80 men in troop, officers 
„ Colonel and Captain of (his own) " Lord 

Dover's Regiment of Horse." This 
Regiment was composed of six troops 
and a major without a troop, and consisted 
of a Lieutenant-Colonel and Captain, 
Thomas Panton* a major, Patrick Sars- 

* Originally this crack regiment was raised, mounted, and accoutred at Lord 
Dover's personal expense. Some of its officers were very prominent men, 

[666, July 7, 
(18 Charles II.) 

[667, June 13. 

[685, July 26, 
(1st James II.) 

Lord Dover's 

46 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. field, an adjutant, Ulick Bourke, a chaplin, 

Dr. William Starkey, a chirurgeon, Pierre 

mers Coudroy, and six troops and a major with- 

s . out a troop. This regiment was disbanded 

in the following year, when Lord Dover 
was appointed Captain of the newly 
raised 4th troop of Life Guards. 

1685, June 20. Appointed Captain of an independent troop of horse. 

1686, May 22. „ Captain of the Fourth Troop of Life Guards. 

1687, November. ,, Captain of the Fourth Troop of Life Guards. 

Lieutenants: Patrick Sarsfield, Richard 
Lord Colchester. Cornets and Guy dons : 
Lord Charles Hamilton, cornet ; James 
Griffin, guydon. Quarter - Master : 
Henry Morgan. Brigadiers : Michael 
Steddams, George Blount, John Tomkins, 
Ambrose Cave. Chaplin : Dr. William 
Starkey. Chirurgeon : Pierre Coudroy. 
Marshal to the four troops : Petei 
Smith. Adjutant to the four troops : 
William Oglethorpe. 

Thomas Panton was an intrepid gamester, and notorious in London and 
Newmarket. Ulic Bourke was a scion of the Clanricarde family, and adhered 
to the Jacobite party. Patrick Sarsfield was frequently a guest at Cheveley. 
On the occasion of the second great fire at Newmarket, during the Spring 
Meeting of 1683, when many aristocratic persons sought refuge at Cheveley, 
Sarsfield eloped with Lady Cherbury. He was created by James II., in 
February, 1691, Earl of Lucan, Viscount Tully, and Baron of Rosebery. He 
served through the Irish campaign, in which he had only a subordinate 
command, and was frequently successful in his movements, which were not 
supported as they deserved by his superior officers. After the battle of 
Aughrim he entered the service of Louis XIV., by whom he was raised to the 
rank of a Lieutenant-General in the French Army, and made a Knight of the 
Order of Saint Esprit. In the spring of 1692 a camp was formed on the 
coast of Normandy and placed under Sarsfield's command, where all the Irish 
brigades and other troops were assembled with the intention of making a final 
attempt to subjugate England and to restore James II. to his throne. But this 
intention was frustrated by the fleet of Admiral Russell, of Chippenham (whom 
Sarsfield must frequently have met at Newmarket), which, after several days' 
fighting, defeated and destroyed the French Fleet off La Hague, consequently 
the projected expedition was abandoned. In April, 1693, Sarsfield received his 
marshal's baton, but did not long enjoy his new honours, he having been 
mortally wounded at the battle of Landen, fought in July of that year. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Chevetey Estate. 47 

Lord Dover. 

Kettle Drums 

& Hautboys 

These are tosignifie vnto your Lordpp His Ma ts pleasure : 
That you forthwith prepare and deliver vnto the R' Hon ble - 
the Lord Dover Comander of His Ma ts fourth Troop of 
Guards These perticulers followinge for His Ma ties Service 
(vizt) Foure Liveryes for foure Trumpetters All made in 
all particulars of ye like velvett Cloth Lyneing Lace 
Embroydery and of the same fashion as the Lyveryes of his Ma tie ' 
Trumpetters are made And also Lyveryes for two Kettle Drumers and also 
two Kettle Drumes made in all perticulers as other His Ma ties Kettle 
Drumers have And also two Coates for two Hautboyes made in all 
perticulers as ye Coates of other Hautboyes in His Ma ties Guards. And 
this shall be your Lordpp s - Sufficient Warr 1 Given vnd r my hand this 5" 1 
day of September 1686. In y e 2 d yeare of His Ma ties Reigne. 

To the Right Hono {Lord High Chamberlain.) 

Robert Lord Viscount 
Preston Master of 
His Ma ties Greate 
Wardrobe and to his 
Deputy there. 


Lord Dover's 

New Trumpetts 
for ye Lord of 
Dovers Troope 

A Warr'- to the Master of the Jewel House for foure 
Silver Trumpetts for ye Trumpetters of ye Lord of 
Dovers Troop of Guards such as His Ma ties Trumpetters 
have. Dated Sep'- 5 th - 1686. 


On Oct. 7, 1686. These four silver Trumpets were received out of the 
Royal Jewel House. Weight 1480Z. at 10/- per ounce. 
Cost £74.f 

As may be seen by the subjoined documents, Lord Dover was 
outlawed and attainted for high treason by King William and Queen 
Mary on August 1, 1689. On the ensuing September 11 an 
inquisition was ordered to investigate and seize his estate and 
effects at Cheveley, which inquisition was duly held at Cambridge 
January 3, 1691-2; but his attainder was annulled, and a free 

* L.C.R. Warrant Book, Vol. 751, p. 174. 
t L.C.R. Plate Book, Vol. 595, p. 52. 

Lord Dover 


and Attainted. 


Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Lord Dover 


and Attainted. 

His Death. 

pardon given to him on the following November 6, about which 
time \vt was reported to have " made his peace with King William, 
and kissed his hand, and soon after was allowed perfect liberty." At 
any rate, he appeared publicly in London without molestation, and 
then returned to Cheveley, where he lived in retirement at intervals, 
during the remainder of his life. It was compulsory for him to retire 
from the Turf, it being illegal at that time, and for many years after, 
for Roman Catholics to possess a horse of the value of ten pounds 
in lawful money of England. He married, April 17, 1673, Judith, 
daughter of Sir Edward Poley, Knight, of Badley, co. Kent, by 
whom he had no issue. As before mentioned, he died, sine prole, 
at Cheveley, April 6, 1708, bequeathing his estate to his nieces, of 
whom Mary, eldest daughter of his brother Thomas, 2nd Baron 
Jermyn, married Sir Thomas Davers, Bart., who subsequently sold 
the property to Charles Duke of Somerset. 


The Seizure of 

his Property 
by the Crown. 

The juriors for the King and Queen present on oath that Henery Lord 
Dover, James Duke of Berwick, Robert Lord Hunsden, John Earl Melfort, 
Alexander Fitton, knight, William Jennings, knight, Francis Plowden> 
esquire, Patrick Trant, knight, John Trinder, esquire, Thomas Collins, 
gent, Dominic Sheldon, gent, William Mansell Barker, gent, Richard 
Earl of Tyrconnell, Louis Dod, Gent, William Marquis Powis, Thomas 
Lord Howard, Henery Bond, Buro Talbott, gent, Robert Parker, 
knight, not having the fear of God in their hearts nor considering 
their debt of allegiance, but being moved and seduced by diabolical 
instigation as false traitors and rebels against the King and Queen, 
&c, &c, on the 1st of August in the first year of the reign of the said King 
and Queen by force and arms in Ireland with other subjects of King Louis 
of France to the number of 10,000 persons or more, assembled and 
collected and then and there in a warlike manner with other traitors, 
traitorously formed themselves in battle array and prepared a cruel war 
against the said King and Queen and inhumanly waged the same with 
gladiis, ensibus, hastis, hastulis, jaculis, et pugionibus, sclopis, sclopetis, 
tormentis, machinis et bombardis, ac galeis, cassidibus et paludamentis et 
aliis armaturis et armis, tam invasivis et offensivis, quam defensivis. 

Cambridgeshire. — Inquisition indented taken at the Castle of Cam- 
bridge in the County of Cambridge aforesaid the 3rd day of January in the 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 49 

second year of the reign of Lord and Lady William and Mary by the Grace Cheveley. 
of God King and Queen of England etc., Defender of the Faith etc., before 
us John Radford, Robert Blayney, Theophilus Eyton esquires and Henry Proceedings 
Starkey gentleman, Commissioners of the said King and Queen by virtue 
of their Commission under their Great Seal of England bearing date at 
Westminster the i ith day of September now last passed directed to us or to 
any three or more persons named in the said Commission and annexed to 
this Inquisition to enquire on behalf of the said King and Queen concerning 
certain things articles and circumstance specified in the same Commission 
by the oath of John Craske, Thomas Nicholson, junior, John Clacke, The Jury. 
Nathaniel Tench, John Palmer, Thomas Reeve, Abraham Cutchey, Stephen 
Palmer, Cornelius Pamplyn, Francis Frost, John Ashby, John Bunting, 
Henry Clacke, Thomas Nicholson, Philip Pearson, James Adams, and 
Richard Adams, gentlemen, honest and lawful men of the county aforesaid, 
Who being sworn and charged concerning and upon the premises say upon 
their oath That Henry Lord Dover named in the Commission aforesaid on 
the day of perpetration of High Treason in the same Commission specified 
namely the ist day of August in the first year of the reign of the said King 
and Queen was seised in his demesne as of fee of and in the Manor of 
Cheveley with the appurtenances in the County of Cambridge aforesaid Survey 

And also of and in the Court of view of Frank Pledge and the Court Baron of Cheveley. 
belonging and appertaining to the manor aforesaid And also of and in a r 9 1-2 - 

capital messuage called Cheveley Hall otherwise Cheveley House with the 
appurtenances in the parish of Cheveley in the County of Cambridge afore- 
said and of and in a garden belonging and appertaining to the messuage 
aforesaid And also of and in a Park in the parish of Cheveley aforesaid 
containing by estimation 250 acres of land more or less And also of and in 
four messuages six cottages and 450 acres of land in the parish of Cheveley 
aloresaid now or late in the occupation of the aforesaid Henry Lord Dover 
and John Shipp, John French, William Chenery, Thomas Smith, John 
Stevenson, Thomas Reeve, Thomas Warren, Leonard Simkin, Samuel 
Simkin, Giles Pettit, John Foulkes, esquires (Ar.), William Elsden, Thomas 
Lunn, Thomas Peck, and John Dawson or their assigns And also of and 
in a certain Sheep Walk in the parish of Cheveley aforesaid And also of 
and in a Windmill in the parish of Cheveley aforesaid now or late in the 
possession of John Veale And also of and for ever the advowson right of 
patronage and presentation to the rectory and vicarage of the parish 
church of Cheveley aforesaid Which said manor messuages cottages park 
lands sheepwalk mill advowson and other the premises aforesaid are of 
the clear yearly value in all issues besides reprises Three hundred and 
forty pounds And also of and in a moiety of a piece of land called 

50 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Deer, Horses 

and Sheep. 


Cropley Park in the County of Cambridge aforesaid of the clear yearly 
value in all issues besides reprisals Ten pounds. 

And THE JURORS aforesaid further say upon their oath aforesaid, THAT 
the aforesaid Henry Lord Dover on the day when he was outlawed for the 
High Treason specified in the same Commission, namely, on Monday next 
before the Feast of St. Valentine, Bishop and Martyr, in the first year of 
the reign of the said King and Queen was possessed as of his own goods 
and chattels of and in two hundred [fallow] deer {dam) each of which was 
worth ten shillings, And also of and in ten horses each of which was worth 
four pounds, And also of and in forty sheep each of which was worth four 
shillings And also of and in two waggons of the value of twelve pounds. 

Which said deer horses sheep and waggons aforesaid at the time of 
the taking of this inquisition were in the hands and possession of John 
Dawson and Edmund Gutteridge of Cheveley aforesaid, gentlemen, And 
Therefore We the aforesaid Commissioners have taken and caused to be 
seized the manor aforesaid with the appurtenances and the several 
messuages cottages parks lands sheep walk mill advowson goods and 
chattels aforesaid and all and singular the other premises aforesaid with the 
appurtenances into the hands of the said Lord the King and Lady the Queen 
as by the Commission aforesaid is ordered to us. In Witness whereof, to 
one part of this inquisition indented in the hands of us the aforesaid 
Commissioners remaining and by us to be sent and certified to the Barons 
of the Exchequer of the said King and Queen as well the jurors aforesaid 
have set their hands and seals as we the aforesaid Commissioners have set 
our hands and seals And to the other part of this inquisition remaining in 
the hands of the first jurors aforesaid we the aforesaid Commissioners have 
set our hands and seals on the day year and place first above written. 

John Radford. O Theo. 



Ro. Blayney. O Hen. Starkey 

• O 

Jno. Craske. 


ffrancis ffrost. 


Thomas Nicholson. 


John Ashby. 


John Clack. 


The mark of 

Nath. Tanch. 


John S. Bunting. 


John Palmer. 


Henry Clack. 


Thomas Reeve. 


Tho. Nicholl. 


Abraham Cutchley. 


Phil Pearson. 


The mark of 

James Adams. 


Stephen S. Palmer. 


Richard Adams. 

Cornelius Pamplin. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 51 

CONCERNING a Grant The King and Queen &c. to all to whom 

OF Pardon to &c. greeting. Whereas at the Session of 

Lord Dover. Oyer and Terminer held for our citty of 

London at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey in 
London in the Parish of St. Sepulchre in the Ward of Farringdon without 
London aforesaid on Wednesday namely on the gth day of October in the 
first year of our reign before Thomas Pilkington, knight, Mayor of the City 
of London, Henry Pollexfen, knight, our Chief Justice of the Bench (de 
Banco), John Powell, knight, one of our Justices of the Bench, Thomas 
Rokeby, knight, another of our Justices of the Bench, John Lawrence, 
knight, Patience Ward, knight, John Moore, knight, Robert Geffery, 
knight, and Peter Daniell, knight, Aldermen of the City aforesaid and 
Henry Crispe, esquire, and others, their fellows our Justices, by our Letters 
Patent made to the afore Justices aforesaid and others and to certain four 
or more of them under our Great Seal of England to enquire by the oath of 
good honest and lawful men of the City aforesaid and by other ways 
manners and means by which they may or can better know (as well within 
the liberties as without) concerning certain treasons, misprisions of treasons 
and concealments of treasons, against us out of this our Kingdom of 
England by whosoever and howsoever had made perpetrated or committed 
according to the form of the Statute in Parliament of Lord Henry VIII. late 
King of England &c. in the 35th year of his reign held at Westminster 
made and issued and assigned to hear and determine the same treasons and 
other the premises (this turn) according to the law and custom of our realm 
of England by the oath of John Stacy, William Fownes, John Singleton, 
William Broughton, Benjamin Smith, Anthony Meiry, William Trigg, 
Joseph Came, Walter Acton, John Greene, John Warner, Benjamin Hill, 
Thomas Hanwell, Benjamin Godfrey, Nicholas Letchmore, Edward Parsons 
and Richard Hopkins, good, honest, and lawful men, of our City of London 
aforesaid being then and there sworn and charged to enquire for Us and 
the Corporation of the City aforesaid (pro nobis et corporum civitatis 
predicti) it is presented that James Duke of Berwick late of London, Robert 
Lord Hunsden, late of London, Henry Lord Dover, late of London and 
divers other persons mentioned in the said indictment not having the fear 
of God in their hearts nor considering their allegiance but being moved and 
seduced by diabolical instigation as false traitors and rebles against us their 
supreme true and undoubted Lord and Lady, wholly withdrawing the cordial 
love and true and due obedience fidelity and allegiance which our true and 
faithful subjects bear towards us and of right are held to bear and 
contriving and intending treasonably to depose and altogether deprive 
us of and from the royal state, title, power, empire and rule of our 
H 2 

52 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Obtains a Free 

Kingdom of Ireland and of this our Kingdom of England, also to put 
and bring us to final distruction and death on the ist day of August in the 
first year of our reign out of this our Kingdom of England, namely, in our 
said Kingdom of Ireland by force and arms, namely, with [as indictment, 
ante~] traitorously formed in battle array themselves, the aforesaid Lord 
Dover and others, named in the aforesaid indictment, and then and there 
waged a cruel war against us with fire and sword &c. And thereupon a 
prosecution instituted against the said Henry Lord Dover convicted of the 
high treason mentioned in the said indictment, from thenceforth he was 
outlawed and still is as by the record thereof remaining in our Court at 
Westminster is more fully set out. KNOW ye now that We by our pity of 
our special grace &c. have pardoned, released and remitted and by these 
presents for Us our heirs and successors do pardon release and remit to the 
aforesaid Henry Lord Dover, or by whatsoever other name he may be 
known, all and all manner of treasons crimes and offences &c. &c. with 
which he is not to be again charged or impeached &c. &c. molested or 
disturbed, &c. &c. In Witness whereof &c. Witness the King and Queen 
at Westminster the 6th day of November in the third year of our reign. 


Houses in 


Hearth Tax. 

In the assessment of the Hearth Tax* granted to the King in 
the Parliament Session began at Westminster anno 13 Charles II., 
we obtain the following information giving the householders in 
Cheveley and the number of hearths upon which they were taxed 
in 1662, viz. : — 

Lady Carleton, widdow, is occupier of 
one house in which are 

Folks, gent 

Deacon, clerke 

Wright, clerke 

fire hearths 21 

* This tax was instituted in 1662, because the revenue from all sources proved 
insufficient to make up the amount settled as " necessary to support the King's 
crown and dignity," that is to say, ^1,200,000. In order to make up the required 
amount Parliament granted to the King, in 1662, a house tax, extending to all houses 
except cottages. A charge of 2s. for every hearth or stove in every dwelling-house 
was levied pursuant to the Act 13 and 14 Charles II., c. 10. Extremely unpopular, 
and at first collected with difficulty, the tax proved subsequently, when farmed, pro- 
ductive of ^170,000 a year. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 53 

John Luxam is occupier of one h 

which are 
William Pepper ... 
John Reeve 
Henry Sparrow 
— Widdleditch 

ouse in ' 

fire h 

earths 2 

, i 


, 2 



Houses in 


Richard Seargeant 
Timothy Shipp 
Edward Smith 


William Prick 


Nicholas Emmons... 

, i 

Thomas Norbury ... 


Robert Spicer 
Thomas Salisbury... 


Robert Chenery ... 
Thomas Ankerson 

) 2 


Robert Poulter 

> 2 

Edward Pretious ... 

) 2 

James Mingay 

William Deere 

) 2 


John Sister 

, i 

Marke Anthony 

, i 

John Sancty 
Thomas Poulter ... 


Stephen Dockerell 
Symon Peck 
Richard Spooner ... 

— Sparrow, widdow 



, i 


Arthur Rogers 

Thomas Peck 

» 2 


Philipp Jaggard ... 
Edward Clarke 

— Clarke, widdow ... 

> 2 

54 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Stonehall in Moulton. 

The luck 

of Richard 


Hawking at 


The manor of Stonehall in Moulton (Suffolk) was invariably 
held by the Crown down to the reign of Henry IV., when Edward 
Earl of Stafford obtained a grant of it. In the reign of 
Henry VIII., Henry fourth Earl of Derby, K.G., held a knight's 
fee there, jure his wife, Alianore, daughter of Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk. About his time Richard Moody, an official in 
the mews of Henry VII., was settled there. He was made a 
gentleman in consequence of having (presumably) saved the life or 
prevented an accident to Arthur Prince of Wales when hawking. 
It appears it was Moody's duty to precede the king or any member 
of the Royal Family when they flew their hawks at partridge. 
This branch of falconry being pursued on foot, it was his duty to 
go on in advance of the sportsmen, armed with a leaping pole, and 
in following the flight of the quarry he had to negotiate any 
obstacle that lay in the way. On the occasion in question, a blind 
fosse having been met with, he charged it, but the obstruction 
proved so deep and wide that, instead of leaping over, he was 
immersed and nearly drowned. The impetuosity and ardour of the 
pursuing sportsmen, with eyes intent on hawk and partridge, was 
arrested by Moody's mishap ; consequently they were able to avoid 
the pitfall. For this good and faithful service Moody was made a 
gentleman. The manor belonged to this family for several genera- 
tions. No other sporting incidents are associated with it. In the 
time of James I. and Charles I. George Moody was famous for his 
great hospitality and housekeeping at Stonehall, " considering his 
estate wanted much of ^"200 per annum." Although he is said to 
have kept open house to all comers out of the produce of the 
manor without incurring debts, it must be borne in mind that the 
family were extensive woollen drapers at Bury St. Edmunds in those 
days. Samuel Moody was returned M.P. for the borough of Bury 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 55 

St. Edmunds in 1653 and 1656; and with John Clarke, Esq., for the Stonehall n 

co. Suffolk, in 1654. In the reigns of Charles II., James II., Moulton. 

William III., and Queen Anne, Sir Thomas Willes, Bart., was lord 

of the manor, from whom it passed to Sir Robert Davers. Sir 

Jermyn Davers, fourth baronet, sold it to the Duke of Somerset. 

It may be noted, in passing, that the hospitality associated with 

this place apparently continued to be observed, as we read that at 

the last harvest home over which Sir Jermyn Davers presided, in 

1 735, there were six quarts of punch served up in a turnip scooped The big turnip 

out for the purpose, and which measured in circumference one 

yard seven inches. The exterior was ornamented with several 

agricultural devices, and bore an inscription in gilt letters, "God 

speed the Plough, and give us Plenty." The turnip when entire 

weighed 261b. 

Thomas Willys, Esq., of Eyehall, Cambridgeshire, married Joan, The Willys 
daughter of Martin Fowkes, Esq., of Westley and Burwell, and had two Family, 

sons and one daughter. From his eldest son descended Thomas Willys, 
Esq., of Fen Ditton, who was created a baronet December 15, 1641. He 
was lord of the manor of Stonehall, in Moulton, from 167 1 to the time 
of his death, November 17, 1701, in the ninetieth year of his age, and 
was succeeded by his son, Sir John Willys, who died August 9, 1704, 
aged sixty-eight. Sir Thomas Willys, his son and heir, conveyed the 
manor of Stonehall, about the year 1707, to Sir Robert Davers. Sir 
Thomas Willys died June 17, 17 15, when he was succeeded by his 
only surviving son, Sir Thomas Willys, at whose decease, unmarried, 
the title devolved on his cousin, Sir Thomas Willys, who also died, 
unmarried, in 1726, when he was succeeded by his brother, Sir William 
Willys, the sixth baronet. He died April 14, 1732, when the baronetcy 
became extinct. His estate at Fen Ditton was purchased by Sarah 
Duchess of Marlborough for her granddaughter, Lady Mary Godolphin, 
and was part of her marriage portion. Her husband, Thomas Duke of 
Leeds, having procured an Act of Parliament for the purpose, sold it in 
1749 to Thomas Panton, Esq., of Newmarket. 

The Davers family is supposed to descend from John Davers, of Worm- The Davers 
inghall, co. Buckingham. His son and heir, John, married Isabel, daughter Family, 

of Sir John Wriothesley, Garter King-at-arms. Their descendant, Robert 
Davers, having acquired a large fortune in Barbadoes, purchased Rougham 

56 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Stonehall i 


The Davers 

(co. Suffolk) and other estates in that county. In consideration of his 
father's and his own loyalty to Charles I. and Charles II. he was created a 
baronet, May 12, 1682. His eldest son and heir, Sir Robert Davers, Bart., 
of Rougham, married the Hon. Mary Jermyn, second daughter and co-heir 
of Thomas, second Lord Jermyn, by whom he had four sons — Sir Robert, 
Sir Jermyn, Thomas (an Admiral in the Royal Navy), and Henry — and five 
daughters. Sir Robert, who frequently represented the county of Suffolk 
in Parliament in the reign of Queen Anne and George I., died October i, 
1722, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Robert Davers, Bart., an 
auditor of the excise, who died without heirs June 1, 1723, and was 
succeeded by his brother, Sir Jermyn Davers, Bart., M.P. He married 
Margaretta, daughter and co-heir of the Rev. — Greene, by whom he had 
four sons and four daughters. He sold the manor of Stonehall, in Moulton, 
to Charles Duke of Somerset, in February, 1732. Sir Jermyn died in 
February, 1 743, and was succeeded by his only surviving son, Sir Charles 
Davers, the fifth baronet, at whose decease, unmarried, about the year 1806, 
the title became extinct. 

Ditto n 


Dr. Wendy. 



Sir Richard 

Ditton Valence. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the manor of Ditton Valence 
was in the possession of the Wendy family. Dr. Wendy was 
physician to Henry VIII., and was a witness to that King's last 
will and testament. 

In the reign of James I. the manor belonged to the Coningsbys, 
of North Mimms, co. Hertford, the descendants of Judge Coningsby, 
temp. Henry VIII. It appears by the following grant that Sir 
Richard Coningsby obtained a monopoly for the exclusive exporta- 
tion of tin during his life, and that there were some complicated 
financial relations in connection with it between Sir Richard and 
Queen Elizabeth ; and in a subsequent one between him and 
James I. concerning playing cards. 

In July, 1615, he obtained a grant from James I. of 5s. for 
every gross of playing cards imported into the realm or the 
dominions thereof during the term of twenty-five years: "And his 
Ma tie doth hereby, at the humble suite of the Cardmakers, make 
the said Sir Richard Conysbere his officer for the viewing, sealing, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


and allowing of all playing cards to be made or imported into this Dition 
Realm, which inhibicon that no cards shall be bought or sold before 
the same be first viewed, searched, and sealed by the said Sir Playing Cards. 
Richard or his deputies, for the execution of w ch office the Card- 
makers have granted and secured to Sir Richard five shillings 
upon every grosse of cards by them to be made. His Ma tie doth 
grant the said ymposicon of five shillings upon every grosse of 
cards to be imported into his Realm from beyond the seas, as well 
in satisfaction of a debt of i8oo"' owing by his Ma tie to Sir 
Richard as arrears of an anuitie of 200"', in considerac5n of the 
surrender of a grant to him made for his life by the late Queen for 
the sole transporting of tynne out of this realm ; and there is 
hereby reserved to his Ma ,ie for the said imposicon of five shillings 
200" per annum, payable during this grant." It further appears 
that in August, 1617, he received a grant of ^200 a year for his 
life and the life of Lady Margaret, his wife, "and the longest liver 
of them," in consideration of having surrendered the debt of 
^1800 due to him by the late Queen, on account of his grant for 
the sole right of extorting tin, with a proviso that upon payment of 
^1000 to Sir Richard and his lady, the King could annul this 

Sir Richard's brother, Thomas Coningsby, was an adherent Thomas 

of Charles I. during the Civil War. Early in 1643 ne was arrested Coningsby. 
by the Parliamentarians while endeavouring to execute a com- 
mission of array. He was imprisoned in the Tower for five years. 
About this time he made a re-settlement of his estate, which gave 
rise to ruinous litigation. In 1652 his widow, Henry, his son, and 
Thomas, his second son, petitioned the Committee of Sequestra- 
tion, in which they pleaded that by an indenture dated 18th 
September, 4 Charles I. (1628), Thomas Coningsby, the father, for 
considerations therein expressed, did covenant, permise, and grant 
the manor of Ditton Valence, in Woodditton, co. Cambridge, for 
the use of himself for life, and after his death to the use of 
Thomas, his second son. Thomas, the father, died October 7, 

58 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate 







Sixth Duke 


1652, when the manor came to the petitioner, but was sequestrated 
for his delinquency. On November 10 the claim of Thomas and 
Henry Coningsby was allowed, and sequestration discharged, with 
arrears, from the date of the petition. Six days afterwards 
Speaker Lenthall reported his opinion on the case, when the 
claims of the petitioners were admitted. This Thomas, when a 
lad, was surreptitiously married to Barbara, daughter of Ferdinando 
Gorges, of Eye, a merchant from Barbadoes, who contrived to 
possess himself of some of the Coningsby estates. The misdeeds 
of Gorges were productive of ruinous loss to his son-in-law, from 
which he could never extricate himself. He was created Baron 
Coningsby, of Clanbrassil, co. Armagh Ireland, April 17, 1693, 
and was elevated to the peerage of Great Britain by George I., 
June 18, 1715, as Baron Coningsby, of Coningsby, co. Lincoln. 
He was an ardent supporter of the revolution of 1688. When 
William III. went to Ireland Lord Coningsby was with him, and 
when the King was wounded, at the battle of the Boyne, he was at 
his Sovereign's side. He was Vice-Treasurer and Paymaster of 
the Forces in Ireland. In the latter years of his life he was involved 
in continual trouble and overwhelmed in innumerable lawsuits. 
Owing to complicated settlements it is almost impossible to say 
off hand to what member of the family the manor of Ditton 
Valence really belonged at the time of Lord Coningsby's death, 
which occurred in 1729, when his title became extinct. At any 
rate, we know beyond dispute the manor of Ditton Valence was 
bought of Roger and Mary Coningsby in 1 736, by Charles Duke 
of Somerset. 

Charles Seymour, sixth Duke of Somerset, youngest son of 
Charles, second Lord Seymour of Towbridge (ob. 1665), and 
fourth son by his father's second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Alington, first Lord Alington, who was lord of the 
manors of Newmarket and Horseheath. The father was the 
eldest son and heir of Francis, first Lord Seymour, younger 
brother of William, second Duke of Somerset. Charles's elder 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 59 

brother, Francis, who was born on January 17, 1657, not only 
succeeded his father as third Lord Seymour of Towbridge, but 
became fifth Duke of Somerset on the death, in 1675, of his 
cousin John, the fourth duke, who was murdered at Lerici, near 
Genoa, on April 20, 1678. The murdered man's uncle, Lord 
Alington, demanded satisfaction of the Republic, but the murderer 
escaped, and his effigy only was hung by the Genoese. This 
subsequent owner of the Cheveley estate was born in 1661. He 
was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, when he unex- 
pectedly succeeded to the Dukedom of Somerset in 1678. It was 
to his marriage, however, he owed all his wealth. His first wife, 
Elizabeth Percy, was the only surviving daughter and sole heiress 
of Josceline, eleventh and last Earl of Northumberland. At the 
age of four she succeeded to the honours and estates of the house 
of Percy, holding in her own right six of the oldest baronies in the 
kingdom. She was brought up by her grandmother, the Dowager 
Countess, who, in February, 1679, refused her ward's hand to 
Charles II., for his son the Duke of Richmond, and a few weeks 
later bestowed the heiress upon Henry Cavendish Earl of Ogle, a 
sickly boy of fifteen, heir to Henry Duke of Newcastle. Before a 
year had elapsed he died, and the old Countess lost no time in 
arranging a fresh match between her ward and Thomas Thynne, of 
Longleat, in Wiltshire, familiarly known as " Tom of Ten 
Thousand." Thynne was formally married to Lady Ogle in the 
summer of 1681, but immediately after the wedding the bride of 
fourteen fled for protection to Lady Temple at the Hague, and 
Thynne was murdered in Pall Mall by hired assassins on 
February 12, 1682, at the instigation of Count Charles Konigs- 
mark, who had been a rival suitor for the Countess of Ogle. 
Some three months after Thynne's death the Countess, who was 
now fifteen, consented to regard the Duke of Somerset in the light 
of a suitor, and on May 30, 1682, they were married, the Duke 
having previously agreed to assume the names and arms of Percy ; 
but from this agreement he was released when his wife came of 
1 2 




Sixth Duke of 


His first wife. 

first, second, 

third husband. 

60 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Duchess 
of Somerset's 

The Duke and 
James II. 

The Duke and 
William III. 

The Duke and 
Queen Anne. 

age. Besides the estates and the territorial influence of the 
Percys, the Duke thus became master of Alnwick Castle, Pet- 
worth, Sion House, and Northampton, better known by its latter 
title of Northumberland, House, in the Strand. 

The Duke's handsome figure appeared to advantage in pageants 
and ceremonies of State, for which he showed an extraordinary 
predilection, taking chief part at the funerals of Mary, William III., 
Anne and George I., and bearing the orb at the coronations of 
each of those sovereigns. The Duke sumptuously entertained 
James II. at Marlborough in August, 1686, during his progress 
from Windsor to Portsmouth. 

In July, 1687, the King assigned to Somerset, as first Lord of 
the Bedchamber, the duty of introducing at St. James's the Papal 
Nuncio, whom the King was determined to receive publicly in 
his official character. The Duke objected to the task on the 
ground that its performance would subject him to a heavy penalty 
under the law of the land. By this action he lost his place at 
Court and the regiment he commanded, but his conduct in that 
affair raised him in the estimation of the Orange faction, to which 
he soon after attached himself. In 1689 he was elected Chancellor 
of Cambridge University. He succeeded Halifax as Speaker 
of the House of Lords in 1690, and was one of the Regents 
from July to November, 1701. He was on cordial terms with 
William III., whom he had the honour to entertain at dinner 
at Northumberland House on April 10, 1700, and on the 
26th of June in the following year — probably the only occa- 
sions on record of that monarch having figured as a guest of 
a subject when the Court was in residence in London during 
his reign. 

With Queen Anne he was a prime favourite. When, as 
Princess, she had been summarily ejected from the Cockpit, 
Westminster, in April, 1692, and the courtiers were forbidden to 
countenance her, the Duke gave her a warm welcome at Sion 
House. By her influence he was made, in 1702, Master of the 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 61 

Horse, and in 1706 one of the Commissioners for the union of 
Scotland. In December, 1703, he was sent to Portsmouth to 
welcome the Archduke Charles as King of Spain, and figured 
prominently in the magnificent ceremonial devised for the 

He lent his powerful interest to those who, on the death of 
Queen Anne, took up the cause of George I. The new King 
reinstated him in the office of Master of the Horse, from which, 
however, he was soon after dismissed, and that office remained 
vacant during the remainder of George I.'s reign. 

Henceforth, the Duke devoted himself to the Turf and rural 
and family affairs. He became known as "The Proud Duke," 
and the tradition of his pride is kept alive by the anecdote, 
that when his second wife kissed him, he remarked : " Madam, 
my first Duchess was a Percy, and she never took such a 
liberty." His domestics obeyed him by signs, and, when he 
travelled, the country roads were scoured by outriders, whose duty 
it was to protect him from the gaze of the vulgar, but more 
probably to clear the way in order to allow his coach and 
horses (of which the latter were famous roadsters) to proceed 
with rapidity and without interruption.* 

Many years antecedent to these events the Duke of 
Somerset became a prominent patron of the Turf, and was hence- 
forth closely associated with Newmarket, where he subsequently 
acquired the Cheveley estate and several adjoining manors. 
His first appearance as an owner of racehorses was at the New- 
market October meeting of 1698. On this occasion he had an 
onerous duty to perform. In his capacity of Chancellor of the 
University of Cambridge it devolved on him to embrace the 
opportunity of King William's sojourn at Newmarket to present 

* The Duke employed James Seymour, the animal painter, to decorate a room at 
Petworth with portraits of his racehorses, many of which were engraved by Thomas 
Barford and Richard Houston. A picture by Seymour of the famous carriage match 
against time, at Newmarket in 1750, which was at one time in the collection at 
Hengrave Hall, is now at Cheveley Park. 

G2 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Duke's 
Racing Career. 

Queen Anne's 


to Cheveley. 


the Dons to their new sovereign. The ceremony must have been 
attended with great display : five dukes, twelve earls, numerous 
lords, and the Foreign Ambassadors, with their suites, having 
assisted at the function. On the following day a match between 
one of the King's horses and one of the Duke's, for 2000 guineas, 
was run for, but the result of the match is not known. At the 
Spring Meeting of 1704 he won ^"ioo in money, given by Queen 
Anne to be run for by five-year-old horses, the best of three 
heats, 1 2 stone each. At the ensuing Spring Meeting he also 
won a similar race. During this meeting he must have had a 
busy time. In his capacity of Master of the Horse he had to 
attend on the Queen, who honoured the meeting with her presence 
and made a sojourn there extending over five days. On the 12th 
(April) he had to present Dr. Ellis, Vice-Chancellor, and the heads 
of the University of Cambridge, to the Queen, who was graciously 
pleased to receive from them, on that occasion, the " loyal 
address " which the Dons presented to her. He accompanied 
her on an informal visit to Cheveley : at that time, alas ! 
no longer the Cheveley of former days : dilapidated, un- 
occupied, and neglected. Fortunately the famous Terrace 
survived the wreck of the Hall, and the Queen is said to have 
lingered there for some time, and to have admired it very much. 
At the October Meeting of 1 707 the Duke won a match of ^400. 
This meeting was also honoured with the presence of the Queen, 
and was her last sojourn at the Metropolis of the Turf. 

At the Newmarket Autumn Meeting of 1712, and at the 
Spring Meeting of 1713, his grey horse Windham beat the Duke of 
Bolton's bay horse Bolton in two matches. The former was run for 
on November 12, for 500 guineas, five miles, 12 stone each; the 
latter on April 1, for 300 guineas, five miles, 13 stone each. The 
finish of these two matches were painted by John Wootton, and 
are now among the art treasures at Cheveley Park. The first 
mentioned picture was (badly) engraved, and has been frequently 
reproduced in books, magazines, and illustrated newspapers. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. (53 

From this time, and for some ten or twelve years afterwards, 
the Duke's Woodcock, Hipp, Ragged Staff, Diamond, Pug, and 
several unnamed colts, fillies, and mares, ran in a good many races 
at Newmarket, in which his horses were invariably beaten. 

With Windham — a five years old horse in 1724, and therefore 
not the same horse as the Duke's grey Windham, before men- 
tioned — he won several races and matches. This horse was 
almost an Arab, being descended from Dodsworth by Place's 
White Turk, by Bustler, by Selaby Turk, by Hautboy. Grey- 
legs (by Windham out of a Barb mare) won the King's Plates 
at Ipswich, June 2, 1730; at Guildford, June 8, 1 73 1 ; and at 
Lewes, August 5 in that year ; and was second for a similar plate 
at the ensuing Newmarket October Meeting. In the preceding 
year he won a sweepstakes of twenty guineas each, and ran last 
in a like race of 100 each, at Newmarket, to which the Duke was 
a constant subscriber, but was very unsuccessful in those then 
novel events. With Quibble (also by Windham) he won the 
King's Plate at Ipswich, June 17, 1733. Although the Duke 
frequently ran horses for King's Plates and Subscription Sweep- 
stakes, he does not appear to have won a race during the next 
five years, nor until his brown mare Chiddy, by the Hampton 
Court Childers out of Bald Charlotte, secured the King's Plate, 
for mares, at the Newmarket Spring Meeting of 1 739 ; and at 
the ensuing October Meeting, another King's Plate, for six-year- 
old horses, 12 stone, four mile heats, with an unnamed bay horse. 
Bad luck still pursued the Duke's horses at the Newmarket 
Spring Meeting in 1743. When Achilles, a brown horse, by 
a brother to the Bolton Fearnought, dam by Diamond, was 
apparently likely to distance his field in a Subscription Plate of 
55 guineas each, 10 stone, he was upset by a person crossing the 
course, and instead of winning was distanced in that race. On the 
ensuing May 24, he was also leading in the first heat in the King's 
Plate at Guildford, when the jockey broke a stirrup leather and 
fell. However, he won the King's Plate at Lewes, on August 5 in 

()4 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Duke's 
Racing Career. 

The Duke 

obtains a Lease 

of Newmarket 


The Duke 
Buvs Cheveley. 

that year. This was the last race won by the " Proud Duke of 
Somerset." Some of his horses ran unsuccessfully at the New- 
market Autumn Meeting of 1 743, the Spring Meeting of 1 746, 
and, finally, at the Spring Meeting of 1747. His racing colours 
were yellow ; his jockey, J. Harwood. 

In July, 1 72 1, the Duke of Somerset obtained a lease from 
George I. of all that piece of land in the town of Newmarket, in the 
county of Cambridgeshire, upon which the Palace stood, situated in 
the principal street there on the south side thereof, containing in front 
1 1 5 feet or thereabout, as described in a plan thereof made and 
remaining in the custody of the Clerk of the Pipe of the Exchequer 
at Westminster — " except and out of this grant reserved our houses 
there called our coach-house and forge, and a certain house in the 
possession of Tregonwell Frampton, Esquire, our keeper of our 
running horses "—and also two little closes of land called the King's 
Closes . . . containing together nine acres or thereabout, in the 
possession of the said Duke, lying near the back part of the said 
piece of ground above demised, with all the paths, passages, &c. 
To have, hold, and enjoy from the date thereof for thirty-one 
years, at a yearly rent of £30, payable quarterly to the housekeeper 
of the Palace House there for the time being. The Duke, his 
heirs, and administrators to have power and authority at their own 
cost to pull down the old building then standing there, and to 
build and erect upon the premises such new structure as they 
please at their own proper cost and charges. 

This lease of the appurtenances of the Palace probably stimu- 
lated the Duke to purchase property in the neighbourhood. It might 
be assumed the vast estates he already possessed would have been 
sufficient even for a person of his exalted ideas. But by his second 
Duchess he had two daughters, for whom he was anxious to 
provide in a manner suitable to their rank. This consideration, 
doubtless, induced him to purchase Cheveley of Sir Jermyn 
Davers, in February, 1732, from whom he also bought the manor 
of Stonehall, in Moulton. From Henry Duke of Beaufort he 

Sporting and Rural Records of the.Cheveley Estate. 05 

acquired the manor of Saxon Street ; Ditton Camois of Lady Cheveley. 
Frances Scudamore, Duchess of Beaufort.* Other lands lying „ 

* The Scudamores were reckoned amongst the most eminent families Family. 

in the west of England, and were domiciled in Herefordshire for many 
centuries. Sir John Scudamore — son of William Scudamore, and grandson 
of John Scudamore, Esq., of Holme Lacy, by Sybell, his wife, daughter of 
Watkin Vaughan, of Hergest — was Gentleman Usher to Queen Elizabeth, 
received the honour of knighthood, and was elected by the county 
of Hereford in five successive Parliaments during that reign. He 
married, ist, Eleanor, daughter of Sir James Croft, and had issue: 
James (Sir), who was knighted by the Lord High Admiral in 1596, for 
his valour at the siege of Calais, and in the ist year of the reign of 
James I., served in Parliament for Herefordshire. Sir James married 
Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton, and, predeceasing his 
father, left issue : John, successor to his grandfather ; Mary, who married 
Sir John Brydges, of Wilton Castle ; Alice ; and Ursula, who married 
Alexander Walwyn, Esq., of Oldcourt. Sir John Scudamore, the Sir 
Scudamore of Spencer's " Fairie Queen," was succeeded by his grandson. 
John Scudamore, Esq., of Holme Lacy, who, at a very early age, 
married Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of Sir Arthur Porter, Knight, 
and was created a Baronet in 1620, in which year he served in Parliament for 
the county of Hereford, as also in 21st of James I., and was created Baron 
of Dromore and Viscount Scudamore of Sligo, by Letters Patent, July 2, 
1628. In 1634 he was sent Ambassador to the Court of France, in which 
employment he acquitted himself with singular prudence and honour. In 
the beginning of the Civil Wars he was surprised in Hereford by Sir John 
Waller, and was sent a prisoner to London. Some of his houses were 
besieged, plundered, and burnt by the rebels, and his whole estate 
sequestrated for several years, after which he compounded for his liberty 
and property as other Royalists had done. The remarkably studious, 
pious, and hospitable life he led made him respected and esteemed by all 
good men, especially by Bishop Laud, who generally visited him in going 
to and from his diocese of St. David's, and found his entertainment as kind 
and full of respect as ever he did from any friend. Lord Scudamore died 
universally lamented in the 71st year of his age, June 8, 167 1, and was 
buried in the south aisle of the chancel of the parish church of Holme 
Lacy. Of his six sons only James lived to man's estate, and having 
predeceased his father, his son, Sir John Scudamore, 2nd Viscount Scuda- 
more, succeeded to the title and estates of his grandfather. He married 
Frances, daughter of John, Earl of Exeter, and died July 22, 1697, having had 
three sons and three daughters. He was succeeded by his second son, Sir 
James Scudamore, 3rd Viscount Scudamore, who married Frances, only 
daughter of Simon, 4th Lord Digby, and died December 2, 1716, aged 32 
when all his honours became extinct, leaving an only daughter and heiress, 

66 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. in Wood-ditton were sold to him by Joshua Grigsby and John 


Challis ; the manor of Astons by William Byatt ; the manor of 
Scudamore Argentines, alias Butlers, in Newmarket, Horseheath, Castle 
Family. Camps, Shudy Camps, and many other lands were bought of the 

executors of Hildebrand Lord Alington, deceased. In March, 
1736, the Duke purchased the manor of Saxton Hall of Richard 
Daston, Esquire ; Ditton Valence of Roger and Mary Coningsby ; 
various lands at Westerly Waterless, Brinkley, and Dullingham ; a 
barn and stable in Newmarket, co. Suffolk, " formerly a part of an 
inn called the George and then the Golden Lyon " ; cottages in 
Woodditton of William Fyson ; in short, every thing in the vicinity 
that was for sale in houses and lands was bought by the Duke in this 
deal. In August, 1737, he purchased Lidgate and Cropley Park, 
and other lands thereabout, from Sir Jermyn Davers ; the manor 
of Weeting, and various lands and tenements in that part of 
Norfolk, of the Viscountess Dowager Howe, Sir Robert Grosvenor, 
and Sir William Napier. In December, 1 740, he acquired the 
manors of Great and Little Wilbraham, Bottisham, Burwell, Ful- 
burne and Westley of Sir John James ; the possessions of Thomas 
Hustler, Esquire, in Woodditton, Saxton, and Cheveley ; Borrough 
Green, Brinkley, and Dullingham of James Francis and George 

Frances, born in 171 1, who married Henry Somerset, 3rd Duke of 
Beaufort, from whom she was divorced in 1743-4. In February, 1732, 
Lady Frances Scudamore, Duchess of Beaufort, sold the manor of Ditton 
Camois to Charles Duke of Somerset. She married, secondly, Charles 
Fitzroy, Esq., a natural son of the 1st Duke of Grafton, who assumed 
the name and arms of Scudamore. By him she had an only daughter, and 
heir to the Scudamore estates, Frances, who married, in 1769, the Hon. 
Charles Howard, afterwards Earl of Surrey and 4th Duke of Norfolk, who 
died December 15, 1815. Frances, Duchess of Norfolk, died October 22, 
1820, when, there being no issue to the marriage, the estates of Holme 
Lacy devolved upon the Hon. Sir Edwyn Francis Stanhope, Bart., as a 
lineal descendant of Mary, wife of Sir Giles Brydges, of Wilton Castle, 
co. Hereford, daughter of Sir James Scudamore, Knight, and sister to John, 
1st Viscount Scudamore. Sir Edwyn Stanhope assumed the additional 
surname and arms of Scudamore, by Royal Sign Manual, on acquiring 
the Holme Lacy estates, which subsequently came to the Earls of Chester- 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 67 

Steygould ; and, finally, in December, 1745, the manor, rectory, 
and parsonage of Gazely. Thus, in thirteen years the Duke of 
Somerset, who, prior to 1732, did not own an acre of land in the 
vicinity of Cheveley, became not only the owner of that interesting 
estate, but was, moreover, probably one of the largest landowners 
in the country.* 

The Duke's private stud was at first located at Newmarket, 
and subsequently at Petworth. He evidently had a great pre- 
dilection for Arab blood, and bred from that strain as near as 
possible. Take, for instance, his Pet Mare, by Westell's Turk, by 
Hautboy out of Trumpeter's dam ; Red Rose, by the Hampton 
Court Arabian ; Windham, by Hautboy, by Selaby Turk, by 
Bustler, by Place's White Turk, by Dodsworth ; Miss Windham, 
by Windham, by Belgrade Turk ; Greylegs, by Windham, by 
Belgrade Turk; Cinnamon, the Reigate mare, by the Thoulouse 
Barb ; and so on, in other instances, from the same strains. There 
is extant a characteristic autograph letter from the Duke to Lord 
Oxford, dated Newmarket, April 29, 1729, in which we learn he 
bought of Lord Oxford two four-year-old horses of his lordship's 
own breed ; and gave " a hundred broad pieces, or £\ 1 5, for his old 
Arabian stallion called Bloody Shoulder." The Duke hopes Lord 
Oxford " will give orders to his servant at Wimpole to deliver the 
horse to a groom he will send from Newmarket to receive it, and 
to ride or lead him away for Petworth according as the horse hath 
been most used to." The Duke adds : " I hope the next purchases I 
make, y r lod 8p will be more moderate in your prices." Allowing 
for the difference in the value of money then and now, the deal 
may be considered an expensive one. 




The Duke's 

* Of course, we are only interested in the Cheveley estate within its 
present limit. Since the time in question portions of it have been alienated 
by the late owners. It may be likewise noted that the above sketch 
does not pretend to be a full account of the acquisitions made by the 
Duke of Somerset ; to give all the particulars of his purchases would 
occupy too much space, and it would hardly be pertinent to our subject 
to do so. 

68 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Origin of 
Ascot Races. 

The Judge's 


on Newmarket 


Death of the 

In the year 171 1 the Duke, in his capacity of Master of the 
Horse, had to superintend the construction of the then newly 
created racecourse at Ascot. In his accounts of that department 
for this year we find he paid " to sundry workmen employed in 
making and perfecting the round heat on Ascot Common, in the 
months of July and August, ^558 195. $d. ; to a carpenter, 
^"15 is. 8d., for setting up posts, and other carpenters' work, on 
the said common in the month of September;" and £1 is. 6d. 
was paid to Mr. John Grape for engrossing the articles for the 
Queen's Plate, to be run for there at that meeting. It may be 
here mentioned that at this, the inauguration of Ascot Races, there 
were two meetings, the first being held on nth and 12th August, 
the second on 1 7th and 18th of September. At the latter the Duke 
entered his grey horse Crofts for a ^30 Plate. The result of the 
races at those two meetings have not been preserved. Four years 
afterwards it appears the Duke ordered a new chair to be made for 
the use of the judges at Newmarket. " William Sandiver, car- 
penter, for making a chair for the judges of the course at 
Newmarket in the month of September, 1 7 1 5, ^5; Richard 
Brightman, for painting the chair steps, &c, at Newmarket, in the 
month of September, 1 7 1 5, £1 8s." The judge's chair used to be 
mounted on casters, or wheels, and moved to the different winning 
posts as required. It will be seen by the above extract wheels or 
casters are not mentioned in the construction of this one. It may, 
therefore, only have reference to the one opposite the winning post 
on what is now known as the Old Cambridgeshire Course, which 
was a fixture. 

The Duke of Somerset died at his Sussex seat at Petworth, 
December 2, 1748, and was buried at Salisbury Cathedral. By 
his first wife, who died November 23, 1722, he had issue, 
Algernon Earl of Hertford, afterwards seventh Duke, two other 
sons, and three daughters. He married, secondly, on February 4, 
1726, Charlotte, third daughter of Daniel Finch, second Earl of 
Nottingham, by whom he had issue : Frances, who married John 

Sporting and kural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Manners Marquis of Granby, and Charlotte, who married Heneage 
Finch Earl of Aylesford. His second Duchess died at Sutton 
Court, Chiswick, January 21, 1773. 

Death of the 

Newmarket Cricket. 

It is a remarkable circumstance that the first or earliest 
cricket match on record between Eton College and All England 
was played at Newmarket in 175 1. It is, moreover, a singular 
fact that in all the books and chronicles hitherto published on 
cricket no reference is made to this match, consequently, it is safe 
to assume the account of it here will be a new and pleasing 
revelation to those interested in the history and progress of the 
game. There is, however, no doubt it must have caused a 
great deal of discussion in sporting circles at (and probably 
for some years after) the time it took place, particularly as 
the promoters of it were some of the foremost men of their 
day, who, subsequently, became celebrated as sportsmen, legis- 
lators, and soldiers. 

No information has been preserved or can be traced as 
to the preliminary arrangements bearing on the match. All 
that is known concerning it, before it actually took place, 
was to the effect that a great match at cricket between the 
Noblemen and Gentlemen educated at Eton College and 
All England was to be played at Newmarket in June, 1 75 1. 
The Earl of March was captain for All England, the Earl 
of Sandwich for Eton College. The stake at issue was 
^1500, " the gainers of two games in three to be the 
winner." There were no professionals ("matched players") 
on either side. Besides the captain, the Duke of Kingston 
and Lord Howe played for Eton ; the two bowlers on that 
side were Captain Draper and Mr. Silk. On Tuesday, 21st 
June, 1 75 1, the first match was won by All England. The 

The Captains. 

70 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

following day there was no play. On the Thursday Eton won. 
An interval of another day ensued (the intervening days were 
devoted to cock fighting), and on the Saturday All England 
won the rubber. Thus, the Earl of March gained the 
^1500 for which the match was played ; but whether any- 
one else on either side participated in the stakes is quite a 

It is obvious the match could not be played in the town 
of Newmarket, as there was no suitable ground there for 
the purpose. Technically Newmarket, in those days, although 
notoriously " the little village " in Cambridgeshire, was a big 
place, principally in consequence of the Royal Palace ; and, 
although that structure was insignificant, and quite unworthy 
of the dignity associated with a permanent royal residence, 
it nevertheless enjoyed the prerogatives belonging to it : con- 
sequently Newmarket comprehended a radius of five miles. 
Within this " verge " of five* miles radiating and extending 
from the Palace in the High-street (now the site of Mr. 
Leopold de Rothschild's house), on every point of the com- 
pass did Newmarket expand, and when the sovereign was 
in residence the royal prerogative within this circuit of five 
miles was absolute. In the absence of any contemporary 
indication of the pitch where the match was actually played, 
it may be possible it took place at Cheveley. We know 
the Marquis of Granby (an Eton boy), who espoused Lady 
Frances Seymour in the preceding autumn — by which alliance 
the estate passed from the Duke of Somerset to the Duke of 
Rutland's family — was in residence there at this time. The 
Marquis, before he acquired renown as a soldier, was famous 
as a sportsman, and he was the most likely resident to extend 
facilities and hospitality to the competing elevens. But beyond 
these deductions there are no available means of ascertaining 

* The extent of the verge varied. In some warrants five, seven, and twelve 
miles are mentioned. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 71 

precisely the actual place at Newmarket where this match was 
won and lost. 

e players tor All 


nd we 

re : 





Hon. Leveson Gower 



Squire Smith 


.. 26 

Captain Smith 

. 7 ... 


Mr. Whitcliffe 

2 ... 

.. II 

Mr. Edsaw 

4 ... 

.. 14 

Mr. Covent 

2 ... 


Mr. Metcalf 

7 ... 

•• 3 

Mr. Humphreys 


•• i3 

Mr. Ladd ... 

. 19 ... 

•• 5 

Mr. Fuller... 

. 9 ... 

•• 23 

Mr. Langford 

. 1 ... 

•• 4 



e players for Eton were : 

Duke of Kingston 

. 14 ... 


Lord Sandwich ... 

6 ... 

• l 7 

Lord Howe 

. 29 ... 

Captain Draper ... 

• 32 ... 


Mr. Braffin 



Mr. Bartholomew 

.. 9 

Mr. Knightly 

. 22 ... 


Colonel Townshend 

. 7 ... 


Mr. Lewis... 

• 30 ... 

Mr. Smith 

■ 25 ... 


Mr. Silk ... 

2 ... 


All England 


Eton College 



Un luesday, June 25, the sc 
All England. 

ore in the hrst match \ 

vas : 

The First 

First Innings 93 

Second Innings 101 

First Innings 
Second Innings... 

. 104 


J 57 

England won by 37 runs. 

The Third 

72 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


On Thursday, June 

27, the score in the second match was : 

The Second 

All England. 



First Innings 

51 First Innings 168 

Second Innings 

114 Second Innings 67 

165 235 

Eton won by 70 runs. 

On Saturday, June 29, the score in the third match was : 

All England. Eton. 
First Innings 109 First Innings 46 

Second Inninc 


Second Innings. 

[ 47 

All England won by 95 " notches. 


Earl of March 

and Duke of 


As may be perceived from the above the two contemporary 
accounts of the scores in this match do not tally. The first is 
taken from the " Cambridge Journal," July, 1 751, and apparently 
refers to the second match. The latter from " Pond's Sporting 
Kalendar" of that year. We cannot find any details of the first 
and third match. Although some of the gentlemen who played in 
it cannot now be identified, there is no doubt of the individuality 
of the following, viz. : — 

James Douglas, Earl of March, fourth (and last) Duke of 
Queensberry, was born in 1725. Soon after attaining his majority 
he became a well-known personage in sporting circles in London 
and Newmarket. His figure was at that time, and indeed for 
years afterwards, thin, agile, and admirably adapted for riding. 
From the time of his first appearance on the Turf, as breeder, 
owner, trainer, and jockey, during the Newmarket Spring Meeting 
of 1 748, he was acknowledged to be the best amateur jockey of 
his day ; and with invariable success rode his own horses in most 
of his principal matches, many of which were for heavy stakes, and 
associated with heavier betting. In the year preceding this 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 73 

remarkable cricket match, promoted by him at Newmarket, he got 
up the novel " carriage match," so well known by engravings of 
the event, from the original painting by Seymour, now at 
Cheveley Park. This " carriage " with four wheels, with a man in 
it, according to the articles of the match, was to be drawn by four 
horses nineteen miles in one hour. The race started at seven 
o'clock on the morning of the 29th of August, 1750, near the Six- 
mile House on Newmarket Heath. The course lay between the 
Warren and Rubbing-houses, through the Gap, where, turning to 
the right, the vehicle was drawn three times round a corded and 
staked course of four miles in circumference, and then back to the 
starting post. This carriage, with the harness — the latter made 
of the thinnest leather cased in velvet — only weighed i681b. 
An immense amount of money depended on the result, and 
thousands of people assembled to witness the match, which Lord 
March won easily — the carriage and horses having accomplished 
the nineteen miles in 53 minutes and 23 seconds. His career on 
the Turf, extending over fifty-eight years, is too well known 
to be recapitulated here, nevertheless, there are many curious 
incidents in which he figured that have escaped his biographers. 
Notwithstanding his admitted astuteness and finesse in sporting and 
wagering transactions he lost (May 6, 1753) a match to the Duke 
of Hamilton over the Beacon Course, in which he first past the 
post, but on weighing-in was found to have wasted half a pound, 
consequently the Duke was declared the winner. About this time 
Lord March was a party to a novel wager which had been made at 
Newmarket " after dinner." It was originally proposed by a 
Mr. Pigot and Mr. Codrington to " run their fathers " : Mr. Pigot's 
father being upwards of 70 years of age — Mr. Codrington's had 
" turned 50." Lord Ossory computed the odds in the proportion 
of 500 to 1600 guineas, according to the ages of their fathers 
respectively. Mr. Codrington thought the odds too much in his 
disfavour, whereupon Lord March agreed to stand in Mr. 
Codrington's place and accepted the wager. It happened at the 

The Carriage 

Running their 

74 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. time of this transaction that Mr. Pigot's father was dead, unknown 
? ~ , . and unsuspected by any of the parties. He died in Shropshire, 
Fathers. 160 miles from Newmarket, at two o'clock in the morning of the 

day on which this bet was made at Newmarket. The bet was 
disputed, and Lord March took legal proceedings to recover the 
sum at issue, the trial resulting in a verdict for the plaintiff with 
^"525 damages. An appeal for a new trial was heard before Lord 
Mansfield, on the grounds that the contract was void as being 
without any consideration, and that there was no possibility of the 
defendant's winning (his father being actually dead), and therefore 
he ought not to lose, it being a contract in futuro, manifestly 
made upon the supposition of a then future contingency. In 
refusing to grant a new trial, Lord Mansfield held the 
material contingency was, which of these two young heirs 
should come first to his father's estate. The intention was, that 
he who first came to his estate should pay the amount of 
the odds agreed upon to the other who stood in need of it. Thus 
Lord March won this wager, but in winning it he was the means 
of stopping young heirs of running their fathers in future : 
such wagers having been made illegal soon after by the 
G.P.O. Statute 14 George III. ch. 43. With a brief reference to the 

bet that he would have a letter conveyed fifty miles within an 
hour, and how he won it by enclosing the epistle in a cricket 
ball, which was thrown round a circle from hand to hand by 
twenty-four expert throwers, we must bring these reminiscences 
of Lord March's career to a close. He succeeded, on the death 
of his father, in 1778, to the Dukedom of Queensberry, and 
continued to maintain his reputation as one of the leading 
turfites of that epoch down to the year 1806, when he sold off 
his stud, being then in his 82nd year. His racing establishment, 
on the top of the town, partly occupying the site of Lord 
Wolverton's new house, was one of palatial dimensions, where 
some of the best horses that ever ran were boxed for over 
half a century. The Duke died, unmarried, on December 23, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 75 

1810, when all his dignities became extinct : He having previously 
bequeathed his immense fortune to Lord and Lady Yarmouth. 

Evelyn Pierrepont, second and last Duke of Kingston, 
succeeded to the family honours and estates on the death of his 
grandfather, March 5, 1726. He was educated at Eton, and, as 
before mentioned, played for his school against All England in this 
cricket match at Newmarket in June, 1 75 1 . He was a great 
patron of the turf, cricket, and rural sports in general, and across 
country was a brilliant horseman. Upon the death of the Earl of 
Carlisle he was appointed by George II. Master of the Royal Stag- 
hounds "on the north side of Trent," March 22, 1738, an office 
which he held until that pack was abolished in 1 760. As hardly 
anything is known about this royal pack of hounds, it may be 
interesting here to insert a copy of warrant appointing him to this 
high office : — 

George R. 
George the Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and 
Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c. To all to whom these presents 
shall come Greeting KNOW Ye that We for good causes & considerations 
Us hereunto moving Have Nominated Constituted and Appointed and do 
by these presents Nominate Constitute and Appoint Our Right Trusty 
and Right entirely beloved Cousin Evelyn Duke of Kingston to the Office 
or Offices of Master of Our Stag hounds on the North side of Trent 
To HAVE and to hold the said Office or Offices with all powers Authorities 
Priviledges and Advantages thereunto belonging unto him the said Evelyn 
Duke of Kingston and to be executed by himself or his sufficient Deputy 
or Deputies during Our Pleasure And to the end the whole charge 
may be ascertained not only with respect to the Salary or Allowance to be 
made the said Master and his Deputy or Deputies but also with respect to 
the Salary Wages or other Allowances to be paid to such number of Hunts- 
men either Horse or Foot and other Servants and Helpers as Our said 
Master shall nominate and appoint from time to time to attend this Service 
as likewise for the buying & maintaining of Horses for such of the said 
Huntsmen as he shall think fit and for the breeding & maintaining the 
Hounds proper for this Service and for replacing and supplying of such 
Horses & Hounds from time to time as they shall become wanting and in 
general for paying and defraying all Charges and Expences whatsoever that 
L 2 

The Duke of 

76 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Master of the 



North of Trent. 

this Office or any matters or things depending thereon or relating there- 
unto may require We are graciously pleased to grant & allow unto the said 
Evelyn Duke of Kingston the allowance or sum of £1600 by the year to 
commence from the day of the date Hereof and be paid to the said Evelyn 
Duke of Kingston or his Assigns without Account by the hands of the 
Treasurer of Our Chamber for the time being out of such Our Treasure as 
shall be Imprested to him for that purpose the first payment thereupon to 
be of so much of the said Allowance or yearly sum shall amount unto being 
computed by the day from the day of the date hereof as aforesaid to the 
next usual Quarterly feast day and from thenceforth Quarterly at the four 
most usual feasts in the year by even and equal payments during Our 
Pleasure And We do Order and Appoint that the said Allowance or yearly 
sum shall be added to the Establishment of the Expence in the Office of the 
Treasurer of Our Chamber and paid in like manner as the other Allowances 
thereon are paid or payable and that the Acquittances of the said Evelyn 
Duke of Kingston or his Assigns shall be good and sufficient Discharges. 
And these presents shall be sufficient and full Authority in his behalf 
Given at Our Court at St. James's, the 22d day of March 1737 In the 
Eleventh year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 




His Regiment 
of Horse. 

On the outbreak of the rebellion of 1745, at his own expense, 
the Duke of Kingston raised a regiment of light horse, recruited 
among his stag-hunting confreres, which greatly distinguished 
itself at the battle of Culloden, and he was subsequently promoted 
to the rank of a general in the army. At Court he was one of the 
Gentlemen of the Bedchamber. He married Elizabeth Chudleigh, 
one of the Maids of Honour to the Dowager Princess of Wales, 
and only daughter of Col. Thomas Chudleigh, of Chelsea 
Hospital ; but this lady, so notorious as Duchess of Kingston, was 
afterwards convicted by her peers of bigamy. The Duke died at 
Bath, September 23rd, 1773, when all his honours became extinct, 
while his estates devolved upon his nephew Charles Medows, Esq., 
who assumed the name of Pierrepont and was created Earl 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 77 

John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, succeeded his grand- Cheveley. 
father, the 3rd Earl, in 1722. He was educated at Eton, and The Earl c 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in April, 1735. He was a Sandwich, 
diplomatist and statesman, and assisted at the Congress of 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. For some time prior to playing so 
prominent a part in this great cricket match, Lord Sandwich was 
officially connected with the Admiralty, and took great interest in 
the business of that department, of which, in the absence of the 
Duke of Bedford, he was the nominal head, and subsequently 
became first lord. During his administration he detected gross 
abuses in the dockyards, and introduced beneficial reforms 
throughout the naval establishments. Owing, nevertheless, to the 
jealousy which prevailed at the time between the Duke of Bedford 
and the Duke of Newcastle, the latter succeeded in dismissing 
Lord Sandwich from the Admiralty on the 12th June, 1 75 1 , 
consequently, he was at liberty to give his attention, untrammeled 
by the cares of State, to this remarkable cricket match, in which 
he played a fortnight after his dismissal from office. His friend- 
ship and associations with the Duke of Bedford continued to run 
most cordially, and was conspicuously identified with cricket and 
rural sports. Walpole, writing of this period, tells us that 
" Sandwich had drawn a great concourse of young men of fashion 
to Huntingdon races, and then carried them to Woburn to cricket 
matches, made there for the entertainment of the Duke." (The 
Duke referred to by Walpole was William, second son of George II., 
and Duke of Cumberland). Unfortunately, no trace is to be 
found of the return match between All England and Eton, which 
was announced to be played at Woburn Abbey later on in that 
year. Four years elapsed before Lord Sandwich was again in 
office. From that time onward he played a prominent part in the 
troubled affairs of State prevailing in those days. He was a good 
all-round sportsman, and in society was reputed to have a singular 
charm of manner. The musical entertainments at Hinchinbroke 
had a great reputation, where theatricals were likewise remarkable, 

78 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


George Vis- 
count Howe. 


Sir William 



his lordship having been a clever amateur actor. He died, greatly 
lamented, in 1792. 

George Augustus, third Viscount Howe, eldest son of 
Emanuel Scrope, second Viscount, by his wife Maria Sophia 
(Countess of Darlington) daughter of Baron Keilmansegge, 
Master of the Horse in Hanover to George I. — who did not 
appoint a Master of the Horse or a Master of the Buckhounds 
during his reign as King of England — succeeded to the title 
and family estates on the death of his father in 1735. Seven 
years after he played for Eton in this cricket match at Newmarket 
he was killed in the American war, at the battle of Ticonderago, 
on the 5th July, 1758, when the title devolved on his brother 
Richard, the famous admiral. 

Captain (Sir William) Draper was born in 1 721, at Bristol, 
where his father was an officer of customs. His grandfather was 
William Draper, of Beswick, near Beverley, a famous Yorkshire 
foxhunting squire. He was also an Eton boy ; scholar of King's 
College, Cambridge, and subsequently a fellow of his college and 
M.A. in 1749. But, instead of taking Holy Orders, as his friends 
had intended, he became addicted to cricket, was famous at 
bowling, and played for his school at the great match at New- 
market, against All England in 1 75 1 , as before mentioned. Some 
years before this time he obtained an ensigncy in a regiment 
of foot (now 1st Northampton), was present at the battle of 
Culloden, and became a captain in the 1st Foot Guards April 29th, 
1 749. His subsequent career was associated with many military 
achievements in the East Indies and America, and in 1779 he 
was appointed Lieut. -Governor of Minorca, where he served 
through the famous defence of Fort Philip, against an over- 
whelming force of French and Spaniards. During the remainder 
of his life Sir William lived chiefly at Bath, where he died 
January 8th, 1787. 

Henry Townshend, second son of the Hon. Thomas Towns- 
hend, one of the Tellers of the Exchequer, M.P. for the 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


University of Cambridge (1727-1761), by his wife Albina, 
daughter of Col. John Selwyn, of Maston, co. Gloucester, was 
born in 1736. He was a Lieutenant-Colonel of the Foot Guards, 
and M.P. for the borough of Eye, co. Suffolk, from Dec. 4, 1 761 , 
to the time of his death. He distinguished himself on several 
occasions, and was killed on June 24, 1 762 at the battle of 
Gravenstein, Westphalia, " seeking the post of honour that his 
duty did not require" (a volunteer?), in the attack, commanded 
by the Marquis of Granby, on the French army. For heroic 
courage and amiable manners he was, says Longmate, a favourite 
of the whole army, and of all who knew him. 

As previously mentioned, the Cheveley estate was acquired 
by the Marquis of Granby by his marriage with Lady Frances 
Seymour, third daughter (and first daughter by his second 
Duchess) of Charles sixth Duke of Somerset. Their nuptials were 
solemnised September 31, 1750. Horace Walpole, writing at the 
time, asserted the bride had ^4000, and the bridegroom was said 
to have a like income, and that he owed ;£ 10,000. The lady, 
Walpole adds, " who never saw nor knew the value of ten shillings 
while her father lived, and has had no time to learn it ... . 
squandered ^7000 in all sorts of baubles and flipperies " before 
her marriage, " so her ^4000 a year is to be set aside for two 
years to pay her debts." This statement is probably exaggerated; 
at any rate, the happy couple managed to jog on apparently in 
affluent circumstances. They attended Doncaster Races in 1752, 
1 753, and 1 754, and brought with them an immense entourage, 
including a pack of stag and fox hounds. The name of the 
Marquis appears as an owner and breeder of bloodstock in the 
stud books of 1752 and 1753; but it does not seem he trained 
or ran any horses in his own name. 

The Marquis was the eldest son of John Manners, third Duke of 
Rutland, K.G., by his marriage in 171 7 with Bridget, only daughter 

The Marquis of 

80 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

and heiress of Robert Sutton, Lord Lexington. He was born 
August 2, 1721, and was educated at Eton and Trinity College, 

Granby. Cambridge. In 1741 he was returned to Parliament for the 

borough of Grantham, and during the Jacobite rising of 1745 he 
received his first military commission as colonel of a regiment of 
foot raised by the Rutland interest at Leicester. After serving 
through this campaign, Lord Granby's regiment was disbanded at 
the end of the year 1 746, but he retained his rank and seniority as 
colonel in the army. In the two following years he served with the 
army in Flanders. He was returned M.P. for Cambridgeshire in 
1 754, and represented it in the succeeding Parliaments to the time 
of his death. 
His Military He became a Major-General, March 4, 1755, and Colonel of 

Career. t ^ e R y a i Horse Guards (Blues), May 13, 1758. He had obtained 

the rank of a Lieutenant-General in February, 1 759 ; was at the 
head of the Horse Guards (Blues) at the battle of Minden, 
August 1, 1759, and had set his regiment in motion to follow the 
retreating French when he was peremptorily halted by Lord George 
Sackville. After this engagement the Marquis was specially 
thanked by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. 

When Lord George Sackville resigned, the Marquis of Granby 
became commander-in-chief of the British contingent from 
August 14, 1759. In the ensuing campaigns he acquired a high 
reputation. He was a great favourite with Prince Ferdinand, a 
circumstance which his critics attributed to his pliant disposition 
and hard drinking ; but the fact remains, that the troops under his 
orders were always assigned the post of danger, and, with their 
commander, always proved themselves worthy of the honour. At 
Warburg, in Westphalia, when the French were defeated, with the 
loss of 1500 men and 10 guns, on July 31, 1760, a brilliant charge 
of the British cavalry, lead by the Marquis, in the words of 
Prince Ferdinand, " contributed extremely to the success of the 
day." The Prince testified to the " unbeschreibende Trapfer- 
keit " with which the Marquis's corps defended the wooded heights 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 81 

of Fellinghausen, on July 15, 1 761 , against the attack of the 
French under De Broglie ; and on the following day against the 
united efforts of De Broglie and Soubise, who were compelled to 
retreat in what turned into a flight to the Rhine. In subsequent 
engagements during this campaign, particularly at Gravenstein, 
where only one officer was killed — Lieutenant-Colonel Towns- 
hend, who had played in the Eton — All England cricket match 
at Newmarket in June, 1751 — the Marquis's services were as 
important as they were brilliant. He was brave to a fault, 
skilful, generous to profuseness, careful of his soldiers, and 
beloved by them. 

The Marquis, who was long dangerously ill with a fever at 
Warburg during the latter part of the year 1762, returned home 
early in 1763. His popularity was then unbounded. "The 
Marquis of Granby " became the sign of hundreds of inns through- 
out England. He was made Master-General of Ordnance 
July 1, 1763. and became Commander-in-chief August 13, 1766. 
In this position he was assailed three years later by " Junius " ; 
but Sir William Draper ably defended his old friend. In 1770 
the Marquis resigned all his appointments, the Colonelcy of the 
Blues excepted. He died at Scarborough, of gout in the 
stomach, October 18, 1770, aged 49. By his wife, Lady Frances 
Seymour, who died December 2, 1748, he had issue John Lord 
Roos, born August 27, 1 75 1 , died 1760; Charles, afterwards 
fourth Duke of Rutland ; Robert, a captain in the Royal Navy, 
killed in action April 12, 1782; and Frances, who married — first, 
George first Earl of Tyrconnell ; and secondly, Philip, son of Sir 
Alexander Anstruther. A portrait of the Marquis, on horseback, 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is now in the National Gallery ; another by 
the same artist, a half-length, is at Cheveley, where there is also a 
full length picture of the Marchioness, which is considered to be 
one of Sir Joshua's best efforts. A monument in St. Paul's 
Cathedral was erected by public subscription to perpetuate his 
services to his country. 


82 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Charles Duke 
of Rutland. 

His Court in 

Charles Manners, fourth Duke of Rutland, second son of 
John Marquis of Granby, by his wife Lady Frances Seymour, 
third daughter of Charles sixth Duke of Somerset, and grandson 
of John third Duke of Rutland, was born March 15, 1754. He 
was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
was created M.A. in 1774. At the general election in October, 

1774, he was returned to the House of Commons for the 
University of Cambridge. On the death of his grandfather, 
May 29, 1779, he succeeded to the title; and was invested a 
Knight of the Garter, October 3, 1 782. He was appointed Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland, February 11, 1 784. The Duke was an 
amiable and extravagant peer, without any particular talent, 
except for conviviality. The utmost magnificence signalised the 
entertainments of the vice-regal court, and the Duke and Duchess 
were reckoned the handsomest couple in Ireland. In the summer 
of 1787 the Duke went for a tour through the country, and was 
entertained at the seats of many noblemen. " During the course 
of this tour," says Wraxall, " he invariably began the day by 
eating at breakfast six or seven turkey's eggs as an accom- 
paniment to tea and coffee. He then rode forty, and sometimes 
fifty miles, dined at six or seven o'clock, after which he drank 
freely, and concluded by sitting up to a late hour, always supping 
before he retired to rest." Upon his return he was seized with 
a violent fever, and died at the Vice-Regal Lodge, Phcenix Park, 
Dublin, October 24, 1787, aged 33. He married, December 26, 

1775, Lady Mary Isabella Somerset, the youngest daughter of 
Charles fourth Duke of Beaufort, by whom he had John Henry, 
who succeeded as the fifth Duke, and three other sons and two 
daughters. The Duchess survived her husband many years, and 
died September 2, 1831, aged 75. She was a strikingly handsome 
woman. Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom the Duke gave a large 
number of commissions, painted her four times. 

John Henry, fifth Duke of Rutland, the eldest and last surviving 
son of Charles, fourth Duke of Rutland, was born January 4, 1778. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 83 

He was educated at Eton, under the care of Dr. Sparke, after- 
wards Bishop of Ely, and at the usual age entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, then under Dr. Postlethwaite, where he took the 
degree of M.A. in 1797. At the time of his decease he must 
have been nearly the senior member of that college, with the 
exception of Lord Lyndhurst, who graduated there about three 
years before him. 

Immediately on coming of age he married the Lady Elizabeth 
Howard, fifth daughter of Frederick Earl of Carlisle, with whom he 
lived in uninterrupted happiness until her death in 1825. In 1801 
was commenced the rebuilding of Belvoir Castle, in the room of the 
old castle, which had been reconstructed shortly after the civil wars, 
but was a plain, unpretending structure, and was planned more with 
a view to security than architectural ornament. This task, which will 
ever be an enduring monument to the Duke's memory, occupied 
himself and his Duchess for several years. At the same time the 
hills around Belvoir were adorned with plantations, and drives and 
walks laid out through the domain. These, and the embellishment 
of the surrounding villages, were in a great measure planned by 
the Duchess of Rutland, whose views in everything which related 
to improvement were grand and magnificent, and who brought to 
the task not only an enlarged capacity but a refined taste, and 
almost the skill of a professional artist, as is emphasised particu- 
larly in the " Duchess' Drive," leading from Cheveley Hall to 

For a considerable period of his life he was a prominent 
patron of the turf, and kept a racing stud at Cheveley, where 
he entertained many ladies and gentlemen of mark and fashion, 
among whom the famous Beau Brummel was a regular visitor. 
At Newmarket the Palace was placed at his disposal after 
Cheveley became dilapidated. 

The Duke was upwards of eight-and-twenty when his name 
first appeared in the " Racing Calendar " with two horses called 
Rambler and Ned, the former of which he purchased, we believe, 
M 3 

84 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

John Duke of 

the Derby with 

from Sir Charles Bunbury. In 1810 his stud rose to six, and 
included Salvator, who was sold to go to Jamaica. The Oaks fell 
to his lot in 181 1, with Sorcery, by Sorcerer, ridden by Sam 
Chifney ; and, unlike modern Oaks winners, she was credited with 
seven races the following year. During the next few seasons he 
kept from seven to eleven horses in training, and the number at no 
period of his racing career exceeded twelve. In 1814 the Selim 
blood produced him another Oaks winner in Medora, the runners-up 
being two of the " Grafton Scarlets " — to wit, Vestal and Wire (own 
sister to Whalebone). Rhoda won the One Thousand in 1816, 
but was " nowhere " to Landscape for the Oaks of that year ; and 
it was not till 1828, when he had only four horses in training, 
that he brought out Cadland, a son of Sorcery, by Andrew, who 
followed up his Two Thousand Guineas victory by winning the 
Derby, after a dead heat with The Colonel. Robinson fancied 
that The Colonel was a softer horse than the Malton brothers 
supposed, and made such steady running in the second heat 
that the future St. Leger winner could never get quite up. 
Indeed, it was afterwards generally admitted that in the deciding 
heat Jem Robinson fairly out rode Bill Scott. Both Cadland and 
The Colonel were among the eight (averaged at 3000 guineas 
a-piece) which drew up at the post on the memorable Ascot Cup 
day of the following year, but in that race they could not come 
near Zinganee and Mameluke. Cadland's form had, however, 
by no means deserted him, as he and Oppidan won about five 
races each in 1830, during which he avenged himself on Zinganee 
for The Whip; and in 1831 he met and beat Varna for a Fifty 
Pound Plate, after a dead heat, over the last three miles of 
the B.C. Quadrille, Armadillo, and Scarborough were also fair 
performers, and Ranksboro', in 18 15, gave 51b. and defeated the 
Duke of York's Pretty Poll cleverly in a T.Y.C. match, which was 
made up in the drawing-room at Cheveley. Rat-trap's Newmarket 
running had been so promising that he started for the Derby of 
1837 fi rst favourite, with only 7 to 4 against him, and finished 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


about sixth in the first ruck of beaten horses, almost level with 
Mango. He was a little and decidedly moderate horse, but those 
who considered him after this performance as a confirmed jade 
changed their opinion when they saw him make his tremendous 
and all but successful finish with Mango over the Old Mile at Ascot 
that June. Flambeau, a heavy, flashy style of animal, was always 
a favourite with his noble master, and among his occasional 
winners in later years may be reckoned Sir Hans, Cowslip, 
Hyrcanian, Allumette, Crenoline, Welbeck, Paultons, Nina, &.c, 
and Harry of Hereford, by John O'Gaunt out of the latter mare, 
achieved the last victory but one in his colours, which was, 
curiously enough, the Rutland Stakes of 1854. The last one of 
all was with another of Nina's stock, Ninette, for a 10 sovs. 
Sweepstakes in the second October Meeting of 1855. The Duke's 
racing was confined almost entirely to Newmarket, though he 
did not fail to send one or two of his string down to Leicester 
every year. Mr. Sloane Stanley was his associate in racing matters 
for several seasons, and they were known on the racecourse 
as the " Brothers Cheeryble " — a name given to them by the 
then Lord Maidstone, afterwards Earl of Winchilsea and Notting- 
ham. Robinson was his principal jockey, while William Boyce, 
who distinguished himself not a little when a lad on his smart 
black filly Flame, had a fair number of mounts. Perren had his 
horses to train originally, and they were then transferred to 
Fenwick, at Cheveley, and in course of time to the Boyces, while 
the one or two which he owned shortly before his death were in 
Tom Taylor's hands at Bretby. There is an interesting picture of 
Newmarket by Frost ( 1 790) now at Cheveley, in which Elizabeth 
Duchess of Rutland is portrayed seated in her coach, while on the 
road is Mr. Perren, the trainer; the church of St. Mary's being 
visible in the back-ground. 

The door of Cadland's box at Cheveley is still adorned with 
the plates he wore when he won the Derby ; and in the picture 
galleries are two portraits of the horse, of which one belonged to 

John Duke of 

His Jockeys 
and Trainers. 

86 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Shooting a 

Charles Duke 
of Rutland. 

Robinson, the jockey, by whom he was ridden in that memorable 

The Duke usually entertained many cherished guests at 
Cheveley during the autumn race meetings at Newmarket, where his 
colours, ''light blue and purple sleeves and black cap," were very 
popular. Like his father, he evinced the greatest interest in the 
vicinity, particularly in the game there, which was in his time, as in 
the days of yore, and as it is at present, deservedly celebrated. At 
those autumn race meetings at Newmarket it was no unusual 
occurrence for the Duke and his guests to kill a hundred 
brace of partridges at Cheveley before repairing to the adjoining 
heath to see the races in the afternoon. At other times they 
would make an immense bag of pheasants and hares at " The 
Links" beat before the races commenced. 

The Duke was shooting at Cheveley, in October, 1816, when 
a mounted groom brought the news of the partial destruction of 
Belvoir Castle by fire. He lost no time in commencing the 
rebuilding of the destroyed portions; but in 1825 had to undergo 
a more trying calamity in the death of his Duchess, after a very 
short illness. 

The Duke was succeeded in his title and estates by his 
eldest son, Charles Cecil John, Marquis of Granby, sixth Duke 
of Rutland. Besides having filled an office in the Royal House- 
hold, he represented Stamford in Parliament for some years, and 
was well known as one of the heads of the " country," or Pro- 
tectionist party, in which capacity he frequently spoke with 
considerable ability, though he declined to lead the Conservative 
party in the House of Commons on the death of Lord George 
Bentinck. He died unmarried on March 3, 1888, and was 
succeeded by his brother John, now seventh Duke of Rutland, 
K.G., &c, &c. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 87 

Saxton Hall. 

No sporting or rural events of any importance can be found 
relating to the adjoining manor of Saxton Hall until the period 
when Sidney and Francis Earls of Godolphin, and Mr. Tregonwell 
Frampton became associated with it. Of this remarkable trium- 
virate, Sidney, first Earl of Godolphin, appears to have acquired 
the manor from the North family about the year 1675, but under 
what circumstances it is now impossible to record, as all the Court 
rolls and deeds relating to the property during this epoch are lost 
or missing. At any rate, there is little doubt that Sidney 
Godolphin was the lord of the manor in 1678, when Mr. Tregon- 
well Frampton became a tenant under his lordship there, and 
again in 1701 of other holdings; and that he bequeath his 
interests therein to Francis, second Earl of Godolphin, who took 
up the bequest soon after Mr. Frampton's death in 1728, as 
appears by the following extract copied from the Court Rolls of 
the manor of the last mentioned year. 

Saxton Hall. 

The Earls of 

To all Xp'ian people to whom these p r sents shall come I the Right 
Honble ffrancis Earl of Godolphin send greeting WHEREAS at a Court 
Baron holden for the Mannor of Saxton hall in Wooditon in the County of 
Cambridge onorabout the Seaventh day of January One thousand six 
hundred Seventy & Eight Tregonwell fframpton gent was admitted to him 
and his heirs on the Surrender of William Coe To one peice or parcell of 
Land enclosed w th a wall thereon built containing in length from the North 
to the South, One hundred twenty and one feet and in breadth from the 
East to the West Twenty and one feet which the said wall adjoyneth to the 
ground then in the Occupacon of the said William Coe as by the Rolls of 
the same Court may appear. And WHEREAS at a Court Baron holden for 
the said mannor onorabout the fourteenth -day of May One Thousand 
Seaven Hundred and one the said Tregonwell fframpton (by thename of 
Tregonwell fframpton Esq r ) was admitted to him and his heirs on the 
surrender of the said William Coe To ONE PEICE of ground next or near 
adjoining to the West end of a Certain House wherein the said Tregonwell 


88 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

The Earls of 



fframpton then dwelt in or near to Newmarket in the County of Cambridge 
as the same peice of Ground was then divided from a certain Close of 
Pasture Customary of the s d Will™ Coe holden of the said mannor from a 
Brick wall lately erected, and built by the said Tregonwell fframpton which 
said peice of Ground containeth in Breadth from the East towards the West 
three feet or thereabouts and from the South, towards the North fforty ffeet 
or thereabouts, And also the aforesaid Brick wall with two Brick Buildings 
called Bricksheds or Lean-toes, then lately built by the said Tregonwell 
fframpton at the South part of the aforesaid peice of ground as the same 
p r misses then were in the occupacon of the said Tregonwell fframpton 
which said peice of Ground which the s d Tregonwell fframpton had took up 
to him & his heirs on the Surrender of the said William Coe at a Court 
holden for the said Mannor on the Seaventh day of January, One Thousand 
Six Hundred Seventy and eight And WHEREAS the said Tregonwell 
fframpton imediately after such last mecnoned admittance in One thousand 
seven hundred & one did in the same open Court Surrender out of his 
hands into the hands of the Lord of the said Mannor by the Rodd by the 
hands of the s d Steward according to the Custome of the said Mannor All 
& Singular his Copy hold, Messuages, Lands, Tenements, and Heredita- 
ments holden of the said Mannor to the use and Behoof of his last will and 
Testement in writing (as by the Rolls of the same Court may appear) 
And WhEREAS the said Tregonwell fframpton departed this life since the 
last Court holden for the s d Mannor (viz 1 ) in March now last past seized of 
and in such Estate as aforesaid Of and in all and singular as the s d p r misses 
where to he was admitted as aforesaid having first made his last Will and 
Testiment in writing and in one part thereof he gave in the words or to the 
effect following (that is to say) I ALSO GIVE to the Earl of Godolphin all my 
Liveing Goods and Psonal Estate w th all my Howses and Buildings erected 
upon the Ground which I purchased at Newmarket as in by said Will 
(amongst other things) may and doth at large appear. Now KNOW YEE 
that I the said Earl of Godolphin do by these p r esents make, Authorize, 
Constitute, and Appoint and in my place and stead putt ffrancis Pitt of 
Newmarkett aforesaid gent my true and Lawfull Attorney for me and in my 
Name and to my use to take Admittance of and from the Lord of the said 
Mannor of Saxtonhall, or the Steward of the Court there at the next or any 
other Court thereto to be holden Of and in all & Singular the above- 
menconed Copy hold p r misses whereof the s d Tregonwell fframpton died 
seized as aforesaid and every part and parcell thereof with their and every 
of their Appurtenances according to the purport of the said Will and 
according to the Custom of the said Mannor And at any time after such 
Admittance so had and taken as aforesaid for me and in my name place 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 89 

and stead to Surrender out of my hands into the hands of the Lord of the Saxton Hall. 

said Mannor All and Singular the same Copy hold p r misses and every part 

and parcell thereof with their and every of their Appurtenances To the uses The Earls of 

hereinafter expressed and limited (that is to say) To THE use and behoof Godolphin. 

of Richard Collier of Hogmagog hills in the said County of Cambridge 

yeoman and of George Tuting of Woodditton aforesaid yeoman To HOLD 

the one moiety thereof to the said Richard Collier and his Assigns for the 

life of the said Earl And the other moiety thereof to the said George 

Tuting and of his Assigns for the life of the said Earl as tenants in Comon 

thereof In Witness whereof I the said Earl of Godolphin have hereunto 

sett my hand and seal this sixth day of November in the Second Year of 

the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Second King over Great 

Brittain ffrance and Ireland Annoq r Dni One thousand, Seaven hundred, 

twenty and eight. Godolphin. Sealed and delivered (this paper being 

first duly Stamped with three sixpenny stamps) in the p r sence of us, John 

Hawkins, John Geree.* 

Sidney Godolphin, first Earl of Godolphin, was third son of Sir Sydney Earl of 
Francis Godolphin, by his wife Dorothy, daughter of Sir Henry Godol P hin - 
Berkeley, K.B., of Yarlington, co. Somerset. He had great 
natural abilities, was well educated, and, inheriting the unshaken 
loyalty of his family, entered the service of Charles II. in the 
capacity of a page of honour to the King on September 29, 1662, 
a position which he filled for ten years. He was then promoted 
to the office of Groom of the Bedchamber, and in 1678 he became 
Master of the Robes. On March 21, 1679, he was appointed a 
Lord of the Treasury. About this time he was frequently with the 
Court at Newmarket, where he appears to have acquired an 
instinctive predilection for the Turf, with which he afterwards was 
so conspicuously identified. It also appears he was associated at 
this time with Mr. Tregonwell Frampton in racing affairs, and that 
he acquired the manor of Saxtonhall, Newmarket, about the same 
period. In April, 1684, he succeeded Sir Leoline Jenkins as 
Secretary of State. When Lord Rochester was appointed Lord 
President of the Council, Sidney Godolphin succeeded him at the 

* The fine on admission of Lord Godolphin was £\o \os. George Tuting 
and Richard Collier £\ it. each. 

90 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Sidney Earl of 

His Career 
a Minister. 

head of the Treasury, and on September 28, 1684, he was created 
Baron Godolphin of Railton, co. Cornwall. Charles II. said 
Godolphin " was never in the way, nor never out of it," and the 
King doubtless considered him a useful servant, with no trouble- 
some opinions of his own. 

On the accession of James II., Lord Godolphin was appointed 
Lord Chamberlain to the Queen, and on the fall of Lord Rochester 
in January, 1687, which marked the triumph of the Catholic Party, 
the Treasury was again put in commission, and Godolphin became 
one of the commissioners with Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover, under 
Lord Bellasyse. On July 14, 1688, he was made keeper of 
Cranborne Chase in Windsor Forest, which he transferred to the 
Princess Anne, and settled in Godolphin House, on the site of 
Stafford House, St. James's Park. He adhered to James II. until 
he abdicated, and subsequently attached himself to the Orange 

When William Prince of Orange became King of England, 
Godolphin was appointed one of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Treasury, was sworn of the Privy Council, and in 1690 he was 
promoted to the office of First Lord of the Treasury. 

On the accession of Queen Anne he was constituted Lord 
High Treasurer. Under his administration of this high office the 
public credit was raised, the war, under Marlborough's command, 
carried on with success, and the nation was well satisfied with his 
prudent management. In July, 1704, he was made a Knight of 
the Garter, and in December, 1 706, advanced to the dignity of 
Earl of Godolphin and Viscount Rialton. But, notwithstanding 
his great services to the state, he was removed from the post of 
Lord High Treasurer on August 8, 17 10. He died at St. Albans 
on September 15, 1 7 1 2, and was interred in Westminster Abbey. 
By his wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Blague, Esq., he 
had issue an only son, Francis, second Earl of Godolphin, who 
married in the spring of 1698 Henrietta Churchill daughter of 
James, first Duke of Marlborough (who became Duchess of 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Marlborough in her own right), by whom he had one son and two 
daughters, but by the death of their only son William, the title 
passed to Charles Spencer, fifth Earl of Sunderland. Their 
daughter Henrietta married Thomas Pelham Duke of Newcastle 
in 1 715, and died in 1776 without issue ; the other daughter, Mary, 
married the fourth Duke of Leeds in 1 740, and was ancestress of 
the present Duke, who owns the Godolphin Estates. 

Now, as to the racing career of Sidney, first Earl of Godolphin, 
which was chiefly confined to Newmarket, it is difficult to say 
precisely when it began. Indeed, it is far easier to follow his 
transactions at Newmarket as a Minister of State than as an 
owner of racehorses. There can be little doubt that he entered 
and ran horses there in the time of Charles II., but no specific 
reference to any of them is given before the October meeting 
of 1684, when one of the horses "lost all three heats to Mr. 
Wharton's grey gelding." Even this race would have been 
unknown to us if it had not been mentioned in a letter written at 
the time by the Duke of York to his niece, the Countess of 
Lichfield. Fourteen years elapsed before any of his racehorses are 
next mentioned; nevertheless he had been a prominent patron of 
the Turf, a landowner, possessing a permanent residence at New- 
market for full twenty years anterior to the Spring Meeting of 
1698, when his horse Yellow Jack (8st. 71b.) paid forfeit to Mr. 
Bowcher's horse Hag (p,st.) in a 4 mile match for ^500. In 1698 
he became a subscriber to the Eleven Stone Plate, to be run for at 
Thetford the last Friday in September in that year, the year 
following, and 1700. (The results of those plates are unknown.) 
From this time until his death in 1 712 he owned, entered, and ran 
the following horses at Newmarket, viz. : 

Saxton Hall. 

Sydney Earl of 

His Career on 
the Turf. 

[701. Spring Meeting: Paid forfeit for his horse Stout in a match 
with Duke of Devonshire's Robin. Lost a match to Lord 

1702. Spring Meeting: Won a match for £300 with Mr. Hervey 
(Horses not known.) 

N 2 

92 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 

Sydney Earl of 

His Career on 
the Turf. 

1703. Spring Meeting: Won a match for £1000 with the Duke of 

Argyle. (Horses not known.) 
1705. Spring Meeting: Pouskins beat Mr. Parson's Why Not in a 

1707. Autumn Meeting: Won the Queen's Plate. Won a match for 

500 guineas with the Duke of Bedford. (Horses not known.) 

1708. Spring Meeting: Made the following matches (results unknown): 

Byerly, gelding, 8st. lib., against the Duke of Bolton's mare, 
8st., 4 miles, for 200 guineas ; half forfeit. Chance, 8st, 
against the Duke of Devonshire's Basto, 8st. 31b., 4 miles, for 
100 guineas, half forfeit. Blacklegs, 8st. 71b., against Lord 
Hervey's Gandergats, 8st, 8 miles, for 200 guineas, half 
Autumn Meeting : Squirrel and Billy beaten in two matches by 
the Duke of Devonshire's Basto. 

1709. Autumn Meeting: Plate Horse, list., against Lord Carlisle's 

Darcy, list., 4 miles, for 200 guineas, half forfeit. Blacklegs 
against Mr. Hay's Jack, 7st. 61b., 4 miles, for 200 guineas, 
half forfeit. Byerly gelding, 8st. 61b., against Mr. Cotton's 
Star, 8st. 71b , 5 miles, 200 guineas, 50 forfeit. Plate Horse, 
8st. 71b., against Lord Wharton's Jacob, 8st, 4 miles, for 200 
guineas, half forfeit. Lonsdale, 8st. 71b., against Mr. Grange's 
Spirit, 8st. 71b., 4 miles, for 300 guineas, 100 forfeit. 

171 1. Spring Meeting: Dragon, 8st. 41b., against the Marquis of 

Dorchester's Wanton, 8st. 4lb., 4 miles, for 300 guineas, half 
forfeit. Byerly gelding, 8st. 51b., against Mr. Hay's Surley, 
8st. 51b., 5 miles, for 200 guineas, half forfeit. Mule, 8st. 71b., 
against the Duke of Devonshire's Greylin, 8st. 51b., 5 miles, 
for 200 guineas, half forfeit. 

1 7 12. Spring Meeting: Bully, 8st. 41b., against the Marquis of Dor- 

chester's Whiterose, 8st. 71b., 4 miles, for 100 guineas, half 
forfeit. Verdosme, 8st. 41b., against the Duke of Bolton's 
Jacob, 8st. 51b., 4 miles, for 100 guineas, half forfeit. 

With such sparse data to work upon it is difficult to account 
for the reputation Sidney Godolphin acquired in connection with 
the Turf. His name has long been associated with the famous 
stallion the Godolphin Arabian, which he never saw or heard of. 
His Plate Horse was doubtless so called for having won the 
Queen's Plate at Newmarket on October 2, 1707, and traditionally 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 93 

said to have won various other important races. His Byerly 
gelding (by the Byerly Turk, Captain Byerly's charger in King 
William's campaign in Ireland) is also said to have achieved a 
brilliant sequence of victories, of which no records have been 
preserved. It is, therefore, most probable he won and lost many 
races with those and other horses bred and owned by him, of which 
we have no knowledge, otherwise he could not have the reputation 
he enjoyed among his contemporaries, particularly on the Turf. 

Congreve, in a Pindaric Ode to the Earl of Godolphin, thus 
adverts to the Lord High-Treasurer's connection with the Turf : — 

Whether affairs of most important weight 
Require thy aiding hand, 

And Anne's cause and Europe's fate 
Thy serious thoughts demand ; 

Whether thy days and nights are spent 

In cares, on public good intent ; 

Or whether leisure hours invite 
To manly sports, or to refin'd delight ; 
In courts residing, or to plains retir'd, 
Where generous steeds contest, with emulation fir'cl ! 

Thee still she seeks, and tuneful sings thy name, 
As once she Thereon sung, 

While with the deathless worthy's fame 
Olympian Pisa rung : 

Nor less sublime is now her choice : 

Nor less inspir'd by thee her voice. 

And now she loves aloft to sound 

The man for more than mortal deeds renown'd.; 

Varying anon her theme, she takes delight 
The swift-heel'd horse to praise, and sing his rapid flight. 

And see ! the air-born racers start, 
Impatient of the rein ; 
Faster they run than flies the Scythian dart, 

Nor, passing, print the plain ! 
The winds themselves, who with their swiftness vie, 

In vain their airy pinions ply ; 
So far in matchless speed thy coursers pass 
Th' ethereal authors of their race. 

94 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

And now awhile the well-strain'd coursers breathe ; 
And now, my Muse, prepare 

Of olive leaves a twisted wreath 
To bind the victor's hair. 

Pallas, in care of human-kind, 

The fruitful olive first design'd ; 

Deep in the glebe her spear she lanc'd, 
When all at once the laden boughs advanced. 
The gods with wonder view'd the teeming earth, 
And all, with one consent, approv'd the beauteous birth. 

This done, earth-shaking Neptune next essay'd, 
In bounty to the world, 

To emulate the blue-ey'd maid; 
And his huge trident hurl'd 

Against the sounding beach ; the stroke 

Transfix'd the globe, and open broke 

The central earth, whence, swift as light, 
Forth rush'd the first-born horse- Stupendous sight ! 
Neptune for human good the beast ordains, 
Whom soon he tam'd to use, and taught to bear the reins. 

The Hon. Roger North, in his life of the Lord Keeper 
Guildford, says : 

" Mr. Godolphin was a courtier at large, bred a page of honour ; he had 
by his 6tudy and diligence mastered, not only all the classical learning, but 
all the arts and entertainments of the court ; and, being naturally dark and 
reserved, he became an adept in court politics. But his talent of unravel- 
ling intricate matters, and exposing them to an easy view, was incom- 
parable. He was an expert gamester, and capable of all business in which 
a courtier might be employed. All which, joined with a felicity of wit, and 
the communicative part of business, made him be always accounted, as he 
really was, a rising man at Court." 

Burnet says he loved gaming the most of any man he ever 
knew ; and Pope confirms the testimony in the lines in the Moral 
Essays which he has devoted to his character : — 

" Who would not praise Patricio's high desert, 
His hand unstain'd, his uncorrupted heart, 
His comprehensive head ! All interests weigh'd 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 95 

All Europe sav'd, yet Britain not betray'd. 
He thanks you not ; his pride is in piquette, 
Newmarket fame, and judgment at a bett." 

Saxton Hall. 

Dean Swift, in satirically contrasting Harley and Godolphin, 
wrote of the former : — 

" His greatest admirers must confess his skill at cards and dice to 
be very low and superficial. In horse-racing he is utterly ignorant." 

In Benjamin Cole's map of Cambridgeshire (London, 1710) 
Lord Godolphin is given in the list of notable residents, occupying 
the pride of place in Newmarket. 

In his capacity of Lord High Treasurer he had to pass 
and countersign all Treasury warrants submitted for payment. 
Among these the subjoined, issued by the Earl of Kent, Lord 
Chamberlain, for the Queen's Plate to be run for at Newmarket at 
the Autumn meeting of 1 709 bears his signature. The plate was 
a Gold Cup and Cover weighing 24 ounces, which at ^"5 55. per 
ounce cost the Treasury £ 1 26. 

Gold Cup 

These are to signify Her Maj ts Pleasure that you prepare a 
Gold cup of the Value of one hundred pounds for Her 
Majesty's plate at y e next meeting at New Markett & that 
you carry it down with you to New Markett, and for so 
doing this shall be your Warr'- Given under my hand 
this 29th day of Sep r - 1709 in y e Eight Year of her Majesty's 

Tojn - Charlton Esq' 
Master of her Maj ts 
Jewell Office and in 
his Absence to y e 
rest of y e Offic rs - 


Let this Warr 1 - be excuted. Whitehall 
Treasury Chambers, 29th Sep 1 - 1709. 


Francis Lord Railton, afterwards second (and last) Earl of 
Godolphin, who was born on September 3, 1678, appears to have 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Francis Earl of 

begun his racing career at the Newmarket Spring Meeting of 
1 708, and, as we shall presently perceive, he continued to be a 
prominent patron of the Turf for just upon fifty years. During 
this prolonged period his horses achieved many brilliant victories. 
In his early racing days he was associated, in some respects, with 
Mr. Tregonwell Frampton, in whom he had an able mentor and a 
staunch friend. The glamour which surrounds Lord Godolphin's 
name arose through, and is still identified with, the famous Arabian 
stallion which became his property in 1 733. And here it may be 
noted that the romantic incident which elevated this stallion from 
obscurity to fame has been, by various writers, associated with the 
name and times of the first Earl of Godolphin (which is absurd), 
and by others to his son, the second Earl ; nevertheless, the 
incident in question took place before the stallion was bought by 
the last mentioned nobleman. 

In consequence of the death of Mr. Coke, which occurred 
early in 1733, all that gentleman's horses were sold, when Francis, 
second Earl of Godolphin, bought Lath, a bay colt yearling out of 
Roxana, by Mr. Coke's Arabian, a sorrel foal (Roundhead), by 
Childers, also out of Roxana; their dam, and the Arabian, which 
was thenceforward called the Godolphin Arabian. 

This Arab was a brown bay horse, with a small white patch 
behind his off hind fetlock. He stood about fifteen hands. It is 
not known from what particular race of Arab horses he was 
descended, nor in what year, or under what circumstances, he was 
brought to England. Beyond the fact of his having been imported 
by Mr. Coke, presumably from Paris, where, it is alleged, he had 
been worked in a cart, nothing further is known about him at that 
time. For some years before he was bought by Lord Godolphin 
he is said to have been teazer to Mr. Coke's Hobgoblin ;* and in 

* At Newmarket, April 8, 1729, Hobgoblin, a chestnut horse, by Aleppo (son of 
Careless)— Old Smithson (Wanton Willy) — rising five year old, beat Lord Halifax's 
br. c. Pig, in a match for 100 guineas, ost. each, 4 miles. On the 29th he won a 
similar match against Lord Halifax's Conqueror. On October 25 he beat Mr. Vane's 
Miss Pert in a match for 300 guineas ; and on the following day won a Subscription 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 97 

1 73 1, the latter stallion refusing to cover Roxana, she was put to 
the Arabian, the produce of that connection being a bay colt 
(Lath), foaled in 1732. As above mentioned, this foal, his dam, 
and his sire, with others, were bought by Lord Godolphin in the 
following year, consequently the circumstances attending the 
conception of Lath would have occurred before the dam and sire 
in question belonged to his lordship. In 1 733 Roxana was put to 
the newly-named Godolphin Arabian, and produced a bay colt 
(Cade). She died a fortnight after foaling, and the foal was reared 
on cow's milk. From these and others, afterwards sired by Lord 
Godolphin's Arabian, descended many of the best horses on the 
Turf — a notable and recent instance being Isinglass. 

The story of the affection that subsisted between the 
Godolphin Arabian and the black cat, which was, in his latter 
days, his constant companion, and usually slept upon his back, is 
perfectly authenticated, and is distinctly associated with the great 
stallion's box at Gogmagog. When he died, in December, 1753, 
the cat followed him to the place where he was about to be buried, 
under a gateway near the stable, sat upon him there until he was 
interred, then went away, and was not seen again till found dead 
in the hay-loft. At the time of his death the Godolphin Arabian 
was supposed to have been in the twenty-ninth year of his age. 
If that is correct he would be seven years old when he first 
covered Roxana. This disproves the assertion of innumerable 

Saxton Hall. 

The Godolphin 


Sweepstakes of 20 guineas each for five-years-old horses carrying 9SL In this, and 
subsequent races, he is described as a brown horse. On April 15, 1730, he 
received forfeit in a match for 200 guineas, and on Oct. 3 he ran third in the King's 
Plate for six-years-old horses. As Hobgoblin does not appear to have run during 
the following year (1731) he may have gone to the stud and refused to cover 
Roxana under the circumstances above mentioned. He was in training again in 
1732, and was beaten in a match for 500 guineas, by the Duke of Bolton's 
Fearnought on March 31 ; and on April 29 he won a match for 500 guineas against 
Mr. Fleetwood's Eaton. On October 7 he won a match for 300 guineas against 
the Duke of Somerset's Greylegs. On April 6, 1733, he received forfeit in a match 
with Mr. Panton's Commoner, and on the 27th of that month, received forfeit in 
another match with that horse. He does not appear in the Stud Book as a stallion 
before 1736. 



98 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall, writers in books, magazines, and newspapers, that he did not go to 

The Godolphin 

the stud nor served any blood-mares until he was eighteen years 
Arabian. old. However, as there is a contemporary statement for that 
assertion, we give the subjoined extract for what it is worth : 

The Earl of Godolphin, the patron and encourager of racing in his 
time, had an Arabian which was so slow, in the estimation of the wise men 
of the turf, that he had been for many years used only as a teaser. His 
Lordship, with some of his friends, happening to pass by as the teazer, after 
having done his office, was returning into the stable, and the favourite 
horse brought out to cover the mare. A clergyman of the company, being 
struck with the appearance and disappointment of the Arab, desired His 
Lordship that he might cover his mare, which being granted, the mare was 
directly led out, and covered by the teazer. The parson having no occasion 
for a numerous cavalry, and the produce of this adventure becoming a 
plague to him, he sold it to Lord Godolphin's stud groom for a hack, who, 
one day at exercise, as the horses were taking their gallop, had occasion to 
correct a boy on one of the best racers. The boy archly bid him defiance, 
and set off ; the groom clapped to, and in spite of the racer, ran up to him, 
and made use of his switch on the shoulders of the spark. When cooled 
from the exploit, he was astonished at such an influence of speed, and 
began to consider his Rosinante very attentively ; he cloathed and sweated 
him, informed his Lordship, examined and re-examined the make, the 
action ; the more they looked, the more they liked. In short, thus 
accidentally, it is said, was the discovery of the wonderful superiority of 
the progeny of the Godolphin Arabian ; who, from this time, became a 
favourite stallion. It is, however, greatly to be regretted that the prime of 
this horse was passed before he was known, he being about eighteen years 
old before this fortunate accident. Had he been made the most of from 
five years old, he would, like Sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan's ancestors in the 
farce, have " peopled the whole kingdom with his own hands." . But, late 
as he was discovered, we are indebted to him for the very best horses the 
kingdom ever knew ; equally superior as racers, hunters, or hacks ; and 
many of them strong enough for carriages and dragoon service ; with the 
finest action, they had not that evaporative spirit which often misleads the 
judgment; but that well tempered courage, which is always ready and 
discovered on trying occasions.* 

* " Considerations on the Breed and Management of Horses . . . addressed to 
the King." London: Printed for W. Davis, in Piccadilly; and J. Wilkie, in 
St. Paul's Church-yard. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 99 

Francis Earl of 

So far as can be ascertained Lord Railton made his first Saxton Hall. 
appearance as the owner of racehorses at the Newmarket Spring 
Meeting of 1708, with a match with Chuff, 8st. 71b., against Lord 
Hervey's Ganderguts, 9st, six miles, for 200 guineas, half forfeit. 
In the following year he ran Chance, Cracknut, Clublegg, and an 
unnamed mare. This mare was matched against Queen Anne's 
Grey Pegg, lost, each, four miles, for 200 guineas, half forfeit, at 
the Autumn Meeting of 1 709. The match came off on October 9, 
and was won by Lord Railton's mare. It is a singular (and 
unique) circumstance that the stake was paid to him through the 
Office of the Master of the Horse, by Charles, sixth Duke of 
Somerset, who was then at the head of that department. The 
reason of that extraordinary proceeding is, of course, obvious. 
This mare and one or two other horses belonging to him were 
matched to run at Newmarket down to the Autumn meeting of 
1 71 2, when, by the death of his father, he became the second Earl 
of Godolphin. During the next five years he had some matches 
with Higlow, Potatoe, and others, but was not very successful 
with them. At the Autumn Meeting, 17 18, he received forfeit in 
a match with Dwarf against the Duke of Rutland's Bagpipe, 
8st. 31b. each, for 200 guineas ; and paid forfeit in a match with 
the Duke of Somerset, and in another with the Duke of Devon- 
shire. With this horse, Spark, and Bustard he made some 
matches during the next two years, but lost or paid forfeit in 
most of them. In 1720 he brought out Bobsey, with whom he 
won The Noblemen's Contribution-money, for five-years-old 
horses, 9st. each, at the Autumn Meeting, beating eight others. 
At the following Spring Meeting Bobsey ran, and won a four-mile 
match for 200 guineas against the Duke of Somerset's Pug, giving 
him 51b. ; and received forfeit in another four-mile match with the 
Duke of Somerset's Byerly colt, 9st., for 200 guineas half forfeit. 
At the ensuing Autumn meeting Bobsey won the King's Plate of 
100 guineas, for six-years-old horses, I2st, four-mile heats, 
beating five others ; and walked over for another King's Plate at 
o 2 

His Career on 
the Turf. 

100 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 

Francis Earl of 

His' Career on 
the Turf. 

the Spring Meeting of 1722. At the Spring Meeting of 1723 
Bobsey, 8st. 81b., won a four-mile match for 200 guineas against 
Lord Drogheda's Chanter, 9st. ; but at the ensuing Autumn 
Meeting paid forfeit in a match with the Duke of Devonshire's 
Childers. In 1724, Whitefoot, by Bay Bolton, dam by the Darley 
Arabian, was probably the best horse belonging to Lord Godolphin 
at this time. He was never beaten, and won several interesting 
matches during the following three years, in some of which he 
conceded as much as 2st. in four and six mile races. With 
Brocklesby, by Woodcock out of Brocklesby Betty, he won the 
Subscription Sweepstakes of 20 guineas each, for five-years-old 
horses carrying 9st., at the Spring Meeting of 1728. Morat, by 
Bay Bolton, won the King's Plate at the Spring Meeting of 1731 ; 
and likewise won and received forfeit in some more matches. 
Lath (the first produce of Roxana by the Godolphin Arabian) won 
a Sweepstakes of 100 guineas each, for four years' old colts and 
fillies, 8st. 71b. each, four miles, beating ten others, at the Spring 
Meeting of 1737; and afterwards won two matches. Dismal, by 
the Godolphin Arabian, dam by the Alcock Arabian, won the 
Sweepstakes of 100 guineas, for four-years-old colts and fillies, 
8st. 7lb. each, at the Spring Meeting of 1738, beating ten others; 
and followed up this victory by winning the King's Plate at 
Ipswich, on the 13th of June when it seems Lord Godolphin sold 
him to Mr. South, for whom he won the King's Plate at Guild- 
ford, on June 12, 1739; the King's Plate at Salisbury, June 26; 
walked over for the King's Plate at Canterbury, July 18; and won 
the King's Plate at Lincoln, September 3, in that year. It, there- 
fore, transpires that the two first horses in training, and got by 
the Godolphin Arabian, were never beaten. Cade, by the same 
sire, though not so successful, won the King's Plate, for six-years- 
old horses, i2st., at the October Meeting in the following year; 
and ran second for a similar plate at the Spring Meeting of 1741. 
In Lord Godolphin's Molotto, by Whitefoot, a son of his now 
famous stallion, we find the same blood, in the second degree, 

William Trec.onwell Frampton, Esq. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


producing winners, as this horse won the King's Plate at 
Nottingham, on July 6, 1742, beating four others; was second 
for the King's Plate at York on the ensuing August 16; and 
won the King's Plate at the Autumn Meeting of 1743. About 
that time he was disposed of to Mr. Parsons, for whom he won 
a ^50 plate at Huntingdon on July 26, 1744, beating Cade and 
five others, after a tremendous race of four heats. At the Spring 
Meeting of 1 745 Dormouse, by the Godolphin Arabian out of a 
sister to Miss Partner, won a Plate of 50 guineas, and a Give- 
and-take Plate of 50 guineas at the Autumn Meeting of 1 746 ; 
a similar race there at the corresponding meeting of 1 747 ; was 
second to Lord Gower's Little John in Plate of 50 guineas at the 
Spring Meeting of 1 748 (which he would have won easily had his 
jockey, S. Arnul, ridden as well as J. Larkin did on the winner) ; 
won a Give-and-take Plate of £50 at the ensuing Autumn 
Meeting ; and a similar Plate at the corresponding meeting the 
following year. In those races Dormouse was ridden by Sam 
Adams. At the Spring Meeting of 1751 Lord Godolphin's bay 
colt, by his Arabian, won the Sweepstakes of 100 guineas each. 
He did not win another race until the Autumn Meeting of 1753, 
when his bay gelding came in first for a Subscription Purse of 
260 guineas. During the next two years his horses did not win a 
race. At the Autumn Meeting of 1756 his dun gelding, Buffcoat, 
won a plate of ^50 ; and Lord Godolphin's career on the Turf 
came to an end by winning the Great Sweepstakes Match of 
1 200 guineas, for four-year-olds, at York, in August, 1757, with 
his bay colt Weazel. Weazel (foaled in 1752) was by the famous 
Arabian, out of a Fox mare. Lord Godolphin died on January 17, 
1766, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. 

Saxton Hall. 

Francis Earl of 

His Career on 
the Turf. 

It is a somewhat remarkable circumstance that Mr. William 
Tregonwell Frampton (so far as can be ascertained) never matched 
or ran any of his horses against those of the Earls of Godolphin, 

102 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


Saxton Hall, with both of whom he was on such cordial terms as to warrant the 
belief that to the time of his death, in 1727, the confederation 
which subsisted between him and Sidney, the first Earl, continued 
with Francis, the second Earl. This triumvirate came from the 
West of England, where they were conspicuous exponents of rural 
sports and national pastimes. Frampton was a Dorsetshire man. 
He was born at Moreton, in the hundred of Winfrith, a lovely place 
situated on the river Frome, in the year 1641, and was the fifth son 
of William Frampton, Esq., by his wife, Catherine Tregonwell, of 
Milton Abbas ; and many years afterwards this son became lord of 
the manor of Asspudle, in that county. 

Like many younger sons of county families, Tregonwell 
Frampton was obliged to seek his fortune and to make it by his 
own efforts. Nothing is known of his youth, nor, indeed, until he 
was in the thirty-fourth year of his age ; but it is probable he had 
turned his knowledge of field sports to good account, and had 
found a friend, though not a patron, in Sidney Godolphin. At any 
rate, he appeared as a person of notoriety at the Newmarket Spring 
Meeting in 1675. He had, doubtless, played many an active part 
before this time ; nevertheless, it was at this meeting that his name 
is first met with in connection with his remarkable career on the 
Turf. Assuming the portrait of him at the Durdans to have been 
painted about this time, he was a man of good physique, with a 
pleasing countenance and somewhat prominent aquiline nose. As 
he is said to have always adhered to the same style of dress, 
regardless of the vicissitudes of fashion, we see his lithe, erect 
figure clothed in a closely-fitting garment, sloping backwards from 
the hips and buttoned up to the neck. Over this he wears a sur- 
tout, unbuttoned, having a turned-down deep collar which does not 
come higher than the nape of his neck. Around the neck is a deep 
white collar of the early Cavalier and later Puritan pattern. His 
hair appears to be cut rather short, and has a bushy appearance on 
both sides of his head, which is covered with a low, three-cornered 
hat. He holds in his right hand a rather long, flexible whip, made 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 103 


in one piece, with a long lash. The breeches come to the knees ; Saxton Hall, 

hose and buckled shoes complete this quaint and interesting 


Such was the appearance, in 1675, of Mr. Frampton, whom 
one of the Secretaries of State in attendance on the King, writing 
on the eve of the match between his horse Nutmegg and Lord 
Montague's Bay Lusty, mentions that the owner of the former 
was "a gentleman of £\io rent," and that he was "engaged 
^900 deepe " on the race. It was run on the following day 
(Wednesday, March 18), when, according to Sir Robert Carr, 
Bay Lusty " was sadly beaten," and they (the Court party ?) 
" were all undone."* 

There appears to have been a good deal of money on this race, 
and it is probable Frampton won a considerable sum ; at the same 
time, as only two or three thousand pounds are actually mentioned, 
it appears the alleged heavy wagering on horse races at Newmarket 
in those days is grossly exaggerated. 

At the following Spring Meeting .we hear of him again at 
Newmarket, where one of his horses ran in a match for ^"iooo with 
a " nag" belonging to Sir Robert Howard's son ; and that he made 
a similar match with another gentleman to be run at Salisbury. 
His name does not again occur in the " History of Newmarket " 
until the Spring Meeting of 1680, when he had a couple of matches 
with his " Race Mare " for 300 guineas ; half forfeit. In the mean- 
time he appears to have promoted or to have been interested in 
several mains of cocks, and to have been very successful with them. 
Besides horse racing and cock fighting, he was, also, one of the 
most enthusiastic falconers of this period, and he is said to have 
invariably carried with him several casts of fine hawks for the 
diversion of his numerous associates. In connection with this 

he becomes 

* There is some discrepancy in the date and the prize or value of this match. 
March 18 is the correct date. In the Heming MS., dated March 23, 1674-5, this 
extract occurs : " At Newmarket, last Wednesday, was run a match between Lord 
Montague's Bay Lusty and Mr. Frampton's Nutmegg. The latter won with .£1100 
besides the great bells." — H.MS.C. 

104 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall, sport we append the following letters written by him. They are 
particularly interesting as being the only letters of his which have 
Frampton. been preserved, but were never intended for publication : — 

Addressed to Thos. Chafin, Esq., at Mr. Loyds, in Greene Street, to be 
delivered when he comes to London. Ffrank, London. 


I have a man now in London that can carry hawkes : as soon as 

this comes to your handes, goe to Mr. Chiffinch, and, if the hawkes are 

come in, send me down, by my man, the largest and handsomest hawkes that 

are brought over in the Rushian shipps : my man lodges at Collonel Coker's 

lodging; Mr. Andrew Loder can inform you where Mr. Coker lodges; if 

my man bringes down the hawkes it will save me 30?. a-piece, and he will 

bring them more carefully than another, and there will be no fear of 

changing the hawkes. If my man stays three or four days, if the hawkes 

are not come in, I shall be contented ; but, if there be no expectation of the 

hawkes coming in, let my man come away presently, and I will desire 

His Letters Mr. Mompesson to bring down the hawkes, but you must make some 

Relating private marke in them, and send me word what it is, that I may be sure 

to Falconry. t h at they may not be changed. 

I am your kinsman and servant, 

W. T. Frampton. 

May ye 1st, 1682. 

The hawke you sent me to keep is now a burden : for I have a cast 

besides, and I cannot get good meat for them, soe that you must dispose of 

her, being a beautifull Moscowy hawke. She is every bodis munney ; 

from the marchant she is worth £10. I paid Mr. Mompesson's man for 

bringing her down 10s. I have made her a good conditioned hawke, and 

killed a brace of pheasants with her; I would not do so much for another 

man if he would have given me £5. Your hawke is full of flesh, and very 

brisky. John Downes, at George Downes's house, on Newington Caseway, 

will get you a chapman for the hawke. I have paid Mr. Coker 20J. for 

keep of your gellding, and one shilling to the man. The dog you had from 

the king is mangy from top to toe, but I hope to cure him, but he is not able 

to leap over a low style. 

I am your faithfull friend, 

Will. Frampton. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 105 


If I should not see you before I go towards Newmarket (the end of 
this month), don't think me ill-natured or disrespectful. I shall for near a 
fortnight be tumbling up and downe in Dorset and Wilts, till I have got up 
some money to take up part of my engagements, but I doubt I shan't 
all. I could lodge a night with good content at your house, were my friend 
Mrs. Nancey well, to help prattle with me, and had I new half ginney to be 
out of my maid Mary's debt, which, indeed, I tried to get in London, of the 
quiners, of whom I am promissed. I shall thinke of providing some present 
for her father, to reimburs him for his trouble and charge to feed and take 
care of my loose hawkes ; but, that you may take no advantage of any 
promise, and another reason more powerful, I only add that I am your 
nameless friend. 

Saxton Hall. 


September 16 — 90. 

In the absence of any authentic information, it is impossible 
to say when Mr. Frampton first assumed the duties of Governor 
or Keeper of the Racehorses of William III. ; an appointment 
which he undoubtedly held at Newmarket under that King, Queen 
Anne, George I., and George II. No patent, sign manual, or 
warrant of any description can be found by which he or his prede- 
cessors, or his successor, were appointed to that office. It is 
probable the situation was filled, and the duties of it exercised, by 
different persons from the time of James I.; nevertheless, the 
holders of it do not appear to have been officially recognised, nor 
to have had any locus standi in that capacity in any branch or 
department of the Royal Household. 

In 1685 Andrew Cockayne, gentleman, presented a petition 
to James II., in which he states that he was Yeoman Rider of 
the Hunting Horses and Governor of the Running Horses at 
Newmarket ; and that another person being made Governor of the 
Running Horses, he became entitled to a pension of ^150 a year 
out of the Privy Purse. That, having built a house at Newmarket, 
Sir Stephen Fox, by his late Majesty's command, agreed with 
him for it for ^"300, which was never paid, only the interest out 
of the Cofferer's Office ; and he now prayed that there being due 

Keeper of the 

Racehorses of 

William III. 

106 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 



to James II. 

to him for the arrears and purchase money above ^"iooo, that 
his Majesty will give him such relief, &c, &c. Now, it is clear 
that Mr. Cockayne does not claim any remuneration or arrears 
due to him for salary in his capacity of ex-Governor of the 
King's Running Horses at Newmarket, as he only alleged that 
he was entitled to a pension of ^150 a year from the Privy Purse 
for having held that office. He cites no patent or warrant to 
support his claim ; and he relies only on his right to obtain relief for 
the money and the accrued interest on it, which he invested in 
the house, which was afterwards bought from him by Charles II. 
Mr. Cockayne's petition was laid before James II., at a Court 
held at Whitehall on December 15, 1685, when the King was 
graciously pleased to refer it to the Lord High Treasurer for his 
consideration and report as to what might be fitly done therein for 
the petitioner's relief. Nothing was done, and so the matter 

The petition, however, is an interesting document, because it 
shows that another person was appointed Governor of the Running 
Horses at Newmarket when Mr. Cockayne was dismissed or super- 
seded in that post. Unfortunately the name of this person is not 
given ; nevertheless, Mr. Frampton may have been the man. As 
already seen, he had been a tenant on this estate from the year 
1678 (p. 87), and was domiciled at Newmarket, where he was 
already a prominent person for some years. At the same time 
there is no justifiable corroboration for the assumption that he was 
the successor to this post at, or immediately after, the time it 
was vacated by Mr. Cockayne. Indeed, the first payment in this 
capacity which can be traced to Mr. Frampton, through official 
sources, does not occur until the year 1703, when he received 
through the Office of the Cofferer and Keeper of the Great 
Wardrobe, " for the expences of the race horses," from March 8, 
1 701 [-2] to September 30, 1703, the sum of ^700. There is, 
however, very little doubt that his usual allowance was ^iooa 
year for each race horse belonging to the Sovereign under his 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 107 


charge, including the maintenance of boys and their lodging ; and Saxton Hall. 
provision of hay, oats, bread, and all other necessaries for the 
horses. In the absence of official evidence it is, therefore, 
impossible to ascertain precisely in what year Mr. Frampton 
obtained the post of Governor or Keeper of King's Racehorses at 
Newmarket.* As there is no doubt of his having been paid 
about the year 1695 ^192 19s. 8d. "for settling the establishment 
of the racehorses at the Green Cloth and Avery and for a plate 
[to be run for] at Newmarket," through the office of the Master 
of the Horse to William III. (Henry D'Auverquerque, Duke of 
Nassau), we may assume he was nominated or actually appointed 
to the place in question at this time. Still, if we deduct 
100 guineas for the plate abovementioned, and if it was a King's 
Plate (perse) of the value of 100 guineas (=£io'j 10s.), there 
would only remain ^"84 gs. 8d. for Mr. Frampton to take; and that 
amount or balance may only represent a disbursement to him for 
his pains and trouble in attending at the. offices of the Green Cloth 
for the purposes mentioned, and would thus be distinct from his 
remuneration as Governor or Keeper of the King's Racehorses at 
Newmarket. At the same time, only £60 or thereabouts might 
have been allocated to this plate, which, according to an announce- 
ment or advertisement in the London Gazette, October 17, 1695, 
was " a plate of above £60 value," and to be run for at New- 
market, "on Thursday, the 24th instant; gentlemen to ride; three 
heats ; 1 1 stone. Any horse may put in for it, paying 5 guineas, 
except a horse known by the name of Headpiece." It is, more- 
over, doubtful if this £60 was supplied by the Treasury, or that 
the Plate was a King's Plate [per se), for which no horse, mare, or 
gelding, duly qualified, could be barred. In Luttrell's " Diary" it is 
called the " Town Plate," and it is said that Mr. Frampton won it 
with the King's horse. In the Post Boy, October 19-22, 1695, it is 

He acts 

* The Accounts of the Cofferer in the R.O. series are very imperfect. There 
is (or used to be) a set of them at the office of the Green Cloth, Buckingham Palace, 
which is also imperfect. 

P 2 

108 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 


The King's 

Racehorses at 

Saxton Hall, asserted that " the plate was run for on Saturday last, at New- 
market, and the King's horse won it ; " but if the race was run on 
October 24, that day would have been the third Friday in that 
month. It seems, however, that in consequence of the King's 
visit the race came off on Saturday, October 19 ; that it was won by 
one of his horses, and that Mr. Frampton probably rode the winner. 

At the Spring Meeting of 1698, Mr. Frampton won the 
following matches with his horses: April 8, Cricket beat Lord 
Ross's Peacock, 9st. each, for ioogs., 4 miles ; April 11, Stiff Dick, 
a feather, beat Lord Wharton's Careless, gst, for 5oogs., 5 miles ; 
April 23, Turk beat Lord Carlisle's Spot, 9st. each, for 5oogs., 4 
miles. On April 18 he paid forfeit in a match to Lord Ruthen, and, 
although it was said to have been made " to divert his Majesty," 
Mr. Frampton did not run his horse (Ball) because he had made 
two better matches with it to be run at the next meeting. In one 
of the contemporary accounts of this Spring Meeting, Stiff Dick 
is said to have belonged to William III., who may have bought 
that horse before the race. He was, however, entered and run in 
Mr. Frampton's name. There is no doubt that in the following 
year (1699) the King bought Cricket and another horse called 
Bruce from Mr. Frampton for ^107 105. ; also some other horses 
from him and other persons, so that William III. seems to have 
had from six to ten racehorses in training at Newmarket about 
this time. Nevertheless, no horses were entered or run in his 
name at the Spring Meeting there in 1699, when Mr. Frampton 
won a match with Cupid, and was beaten in two other matches in 
which he ran Infant and Stiff Dick. 

During the five years from the accession of Queen Anne in 
1703 to 1708 the contemporary information relating to current 
sporting affairs in general, and to horse racing in particular, is so 
rarely to be met with that very little news of Mr. Frampton's 
proceedings on the Turf at this period can be ascertained. Some 
of his horses — Sobriety, Thiller, Monkey, Hopeful, Trumpeter, 
and others — are mentioned to have been matched at Newmarket, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 109 

but no results or incidents of importance transpire in connection 
with them. He was, however, officiating in his capacity of 
Governor or Keeper of the Queen's Racehorses at Newmarket, 
and was paid through the Office of the Cofferer of the Household, 
from October 10, 1707, to September 30, 1708,* £600 "pro 
expensis race equor." Early in the latter year, pursuant to the 
subjoined Treasury letter, he received ^500 to purchase race- 
horses for the Queen : — • 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 

My Lord Treasurer commands me to signify to you Her Majesty's 
pleasure that £500 shall be forthwith paid to Tregonwell Frampton, Esq., 
Keeper of Her Majesty's Race Horses at Newmarket, for buying of 
running horses to be kept there for Her Majesty's use. And his Lordship 
desires you will please to cause a warrant to be prepared and placed before 
the Queen for her Royal Signature to authorise the Cofferer of Her Majesty's 
Household out of such money as shall be issued to him for this purpose to 
pay over the said sum of £500 to the said Mr. Frampton accordingly, but 
without setting him in super for the same in the Cofferers' Accounts. 

I am, &c, 


26 Feb., 1707-8. 

Wm. Lowndes. 

How this ^"500 was invested it is now impossible to say. 
Possibly some of it was allocated to purchase Pepper, Mustard, 
and Star, which belonged to the Queen, and ran in her name. 

We now come in contact with the most remarkable incident 
associated with Mr. Frampton's career on the Turf. It is probable 
that after the death of Sidney, first Earl of Godolphin, Septem- 
ber 15, 1 7 1 2, Mr. Frampton bought, or otherwise acquired, the 
horse Dragon, which was matched by the late Lord Godolphin 
to run against Lord Dorchester's Wanton at the Spring Meeting 
of 171 1 (p. 92). It is possible there may have been two horses 
of the name at this time ; but under the circumstances of the 
case it is fairly safe to assume that the horse named Dragon, with 

* The Accounts of the Cofferer from 1704 to 1706 are missing. From 
October 1, 1709, to March 28, 1711, he received through this department ^"noo. 

110 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 


A Story of 
Snap - Dragon 
and Brandy ? 

which Mr. Frampton made a match, to be run on the first day of 
the Autumn Meeting of 1712, against the Duke of Bolton's Bay- 
Bolton, for 300 guineas, half forfeit, was the same animal. At this 
meeting, on October 30, Mr. Frampton also made a match with 
Dragon against Lord Dorchester's Bay Wanton for a similar stake ; 
and at the Spring Meeting of 1713 Dragon was matched by Mr. 
Frampton to run five miles on April 22 against the Duke of 
Somerset's Windham, 8st. 2lb. each, for 300 guineas, half forfeit. 
Unfortunately, no results or details of these matches can be found, 
and no references to these meetings have been preserved, except 
the bare list of the matches recorded in the Daily Courant. 

It is impossible to reconcile the circumstances whereby Mr. 
Frampton and this horse Dragon can be identified with the sensa- 
tional and absurd effusion which appeared in a primitive magazine 
called The Adventurer, and said to be edited and written by 
John Hawkesworth, LL.D. In the thirty-seventh number of The 
Adventurer , published Tuesday, March 13, 1753, there appears an 
article relating to happiness, properly estimated by its degree in 
whatever subject, except (apparently) in veracity and logic, which 
is exemplified by a " remarkable " instance of cruelty to brutes, 
accompanied by the braying of an ass and the song of a blackbird ! 
The writer abhors sport, but inferentially lets out he loves the 
bottle, and, in the fervour of his imagination, "the evening stole 
imperceptibly away, and at length morning succeeded to midnight," 
when he fell asleep in his chair. In this condition his memory and 
judgment being "at an end," "fancy," that " roving wanton," 
conducted him through a dark avenue, which, after many windings, 
terminated in a place supposed to be the elysium of birds and 
beasts. Fearing to incur the " contempt and indignation " of the 
" birds and beasts," he became an eavesdropper, and listened to the 
sentiments addressed by an ass to a horse. The horse (which he 
now calls a " Steed ") next holds forth as follows : 

" It is true 1 was a favourite ; but what avails it to be the favourite of 
caprice, avarice, and barbarity ? My tyrant was a wretch, who gained a 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. Ill 

considerable fortune by play, particularly by racing. I had won him many 
large sums ; but by being at length excepted out of every match, as having 
no equal, he regarded even my excellence with malignity when it was no 
longer subservient to his interest. Yet I still lived in ease and plenty; and 
as he was able to sell even my pleasures, though my labour was become 
useless, I had a seraglio in which there was a perpetual succession of new 
beauties. At last, however, another competitor appeared : I enjoyed a new 
triumph by anticipation ; I rushed into the field, panting for the conquest, 
and the first heat I put my master in possession of the stakes, which 
amounted to ten thousand pounds. The proprietor of the mare that I had 
distanced, notwithstanding this disgrace, declared with great zeal, that she 
should run the next day against any gelding in the world for double the 
sum : my master immediately accepted the challenge, and told him that he 
would the next day produce a gelding that should beat her : but what was 
my astonishment and indignation, when I discovered that he most cruelly 
and fraudulently intended to qualify me for this match upon the spot ; and 
to sacrifice my life at the very moment in which every nerve should be 
strained in his service. 

"As I knew it would be in vain to resist, I suffered myself to be bound : 
the operation was performed, and I was instantly mounted and spurred on 
to the goal. Injured as I was, the love of glory was still superior to the 
desire of revenge : I determined to die as I lived, without an equal ; and 
having again won the race, I sunk down at the post in an agony, which 
soon after put an end to my life." 

This remarkable exhortation of " the Steed " having been thus 
created, in what Dr. Hawksworth terms " the fervour of his 
imagination" (an M.D. might diagnose it a case of inebriation), 
he proceeds to point a moral by adding : " When I heard this 
horrible narrative, which indeed I remembered to be true, I 
turned about in honest confusion, and blushed that I was a man." 
The blackbird then enters the elysium and engages Hawkesworth 
with song and elegy ; and there we leave them. 

Now, there is nothing in the incident, as transcribed from the 
original,* to identify or associate Mr. Frampton and his horse 
Dragon with it. It is nothing more or less than a bit of 

* The extract from The Adventurer is taken from vol. ii., pp. 13-14 ; London, 
1770. It has been compared and verified with the editions of 1756, 1766, 1778, 
1797, and 1823. 


112 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 




Engraving by 


sensational fiction, and would have been quite forgotten and 
absolutely overlooked but for two circumstances. 

The first is furnished in the moral, where Hawksworth says 
he remembered the incident to be true. On this occasion, 
according to his own account, his recollection was by no means 
clear ; consequently we can spare his blushes and confusion for 
asserting the horrible narrative was true without adducing any 
authority to substantiate a legend so absurd. 

The second circumstance was attended with an engraving of 
Mr. Frampton's portrait by Wootton, in which " The Father of the 
Turf " is depicted seated in an arm-chair with a stick in his right 
hand, a greyhound at his left knee, a fighting cock on the table 
beside him, and a picture " of the celebrated horse ' Dragon ' on the 
wall behind him." The print was a mezzotinto engraving by 
Faber, and was first published about the year 1 740. It sold very 
badly, and a large number of impressions remained for years on 
the publisher's hands. In this emergency, or slump, an enter- 
prising print seller bought up the remainder, and under the in- 
fluence of what may have been to him a happy inspiration, he 
had the sensational paragraph in The Adventurer, number 37, 
engraved and placed on the bottom of the print. But in 
doing this the enterprising print-seller, aware of the absurdity 
that Mr. Frampton would match his horse Dragon against another 
for £10,000, and on the following day match him again for 
£20,000, very prudently altered the £10,000 in the first match to 
1000 guineas. He also faked the quotation by inserting " Mr." 
with a dash before the words "the proprietor of the mare I had 
distanced." At any rate this spicy quotation had the desired 
effect. The print sold off rapidly ; it was bought by sportsmen 
because of the absurdity of the quotation, and by folks of Hawkes- 
worth's kidney as a deterrent to rising generations whose national 
instinct might incline them to like horse racing and rural sports. 

The phenomenal demand which was thus created for the print 
naturally excited the envy of competitors in that sort of business, 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 113 

and the latter, being anxious to participate in an undertaking so 
profitable, sought for and discovered the other picture of Mr. 
Frampton, which was also painted by Wootton, which they had 
engraved by John Jones, " Engraver Extraordinary to H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales, and Principal Engraver to H.R.H. the Duke of 
York." This print was published in 179 1. Of course the sensa- 
tional extract from The Adventurer was inserted underneath the 
portrait, which was printed on the best paper and the finest satin. 
It sold remarkably well. 

It is almost unnecessary to point out that anyone acquainted 
with even the rudiments of making matches, or of entering and 
running horses in races, would know that no one would be so 
foolish as to take a horse from the stud, make a match with him 
for ;£ 1 0,000 against a mare of the highest, or almost the highest 
class, and run the horse untrained in such a race with any 
prospect of success. Yet this is the very thing Mr. Frampton 
is made to do in this match. The horse wins it " by a 
distance ! ! ! " The next day the horse is again matched against 
the mare for ^20,000. He is emasculated before the start, and 
"instantly mounted and spurred on to the goal." He wins the 
race and dies at the post. Why the whole yarn is a tissue of 

It would be about the same time as the Dragon fiction is sup- 
posed to have occurred that Mr. Frampton's name was bandied 
about in connection with an alleged great match he had made to 
run one of his horses against a horse of Sir William Strickland, 
" a Yorkshire baronet." At the instigation of his master, Mr. 
Frampton's groom is said, after many negotiations, to have 
arranged with Sir William Strickland's groom to try the two 
horses before the race, presumably at even weights. In this 
alleged trial Mr. Frampton's horse was made to carry 71b. over- 
weight. The other horse (by some writers called Merlin, by 
others Rapid) also put up 71b. extra. In this "secret" trial — 
which everyone seems to have known — Mr. Frampton's horse was 


A Doubtful 

114 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 



Saxton Hall, just beaten ; and it has been asserted that in consequence of the 
7lb. extra which Mr. Frampton's horse was supposed to have 
carried in the trial, was certain, at level weights, to win the 
match. The greatest interest was evinced in the forthcoming match, 
which is said to have been looked upon as a struggle for supremacy 
between the north and the south; and the betting on it was far in 
excess of anything that had been previously known. It was further 
alleged that several estates changed hands after the race, and so 
many gentlemen were completely ruined in consequence of the 
vast sums lost thereon, that the Act of Parliament 9 Anne, 
chapter 14, section 3, was passed, by virtue of which no sum 
exceeding £\o in bets could be recovered. If this be true, it is 
another remarkable circumstance that no record of this match 
should have been preserved. Even the names of the horses in the 
match, the date of the race, and the course it was run upon, are 
unknown. We are told, however, that Mr. Frampton's horse lost 
the match. Doubtless the circumstances are greatly exaggerated. 
In the meantime we must not lose sight of Mr. Frampton as 
a tenant on this estate. His official quarters were within the 
precincts of the Palace (p. 64), but his dwelling house — which was 
near " the end of Newmarket," in the county of Cambridge, 
between a certain lane (afterwards called the Shagbag), and the 
way leading to Ashley and the Bowling Green on the sheep-walk 
there — now the site of the late Prince Batthyany's, John Dawson's, 
and Heath House. We have already seen how and when he 
occupied this house and premises, and how he bequeathed them 
to Francis, Earl of Godolphin, but "for want of proper words 
in the said will the said gift amounted to no more than an 
estate for life." When Lord Godolphin's tenure expired, the 
dwelling-house and premises reverted to Edward Paston, Esq., of 
Barningham, co. Norfolk, and the Hon. Charles Stourton Walmsley, 
grand nephews and co-heirs of Mr. Frampton. The house and 
premises was subsequently partitioned, and in after times other 
portions of it were held by Richard Cripps, Esq., George Tutting, 

dwelling house 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 115 


William Tutting, John Perren, Henry Neal, Richard Dixon Boyce, 
John Kent, William Buttler, and the widow Robinson. 

Now, as to the astuteness and finesse on the Turf attributed Frampton. 
to Mr. Frampton, it is a remarkable fact that by comparing the 
horses he owned and run from 17 19 to 1727 (the year of his 
death) it will be found that out of fifty- two races (principally 
matches) he only won fourteen and lost thirty-eight. In the sub- 
joined list it may also be noticed that 300 guineas was the largest 
sum he staked in any of those matches, and that more frequently 
he made matches for quite inconsiderable stakes. Indeed, it 
seems, at least during the last eight years of his life, that sport 
and not lucre was his sole object. Probably in consequence of his 
quasi-official position at Newmarket, he only entered and ran a 
horse there for a King's Plate on one occasion. From March, 
1723, to April, 1726, none of his horses ran at Newmarket, nor 
elsewhere, so far as can be ascertained from reliable sources. 

Mr. Frampton's horses won or received forfeit : 

1 7 19. April 10. — Hall won a match against Mr. Cotton's colt, iost. 

each, 4 miles, for 200gs. 
October 23. — Dangerfield, gst., won a match against Duke of 

Wharton's Wigg, 8st, 4 miles, for 50gs. 
November 2. — Chestnut colt, gst., won a match against Mr. 

Cotton's gray colt, 8st. nib., 4 miles, for ioogs. 

1 720. April 6. — Highblow, gst. 81b., won a match against Lord Essex's 

Cupid, gst., 4 miles, for 5ogs. 
April 16. — Nutmeg won a match against Duke of Devonshire's 

Basto filly, 8st. 61b. each, 6 miles, for isogs. 
April 26. — Hobler, iost. 41b.. won a match against Lord 

Drogheda's Pickled Herring, iost. lib., 6 miles, for 200gs. 
April 28. — Spavin Hall, gst. i2lb. 40Z., won a match against 

Sir R. Fagg's Galloway, gst., 4 miles, for isogs. 
October 7. — Spavin Hill received forfeit in a match against 

Duke of Rutland's Trumkin, 4 miles, for i5ogs. 
October 10. — Hobler, 11st. gib., received forfeit in a match 

against Lord Drogheda's Pickle Herring, 11st., 8 miles, for 

200gS. h.f. 

Q 2 

116 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 


October 20. — Oysterfoot, gst., received forfeit in a match 
against Sir R. Fagg's b., 5 years old, 8st., 4 miles, for 
ioogs. hi. 

October 28. — Spavin Hall received forfeit in a match against 
Duke of Wharton Grantham filly, 4 miles, for ioogs. hi. 

1721. October 20. — Margaretta won a match against Major Rous's 

ch. mare, gst. each, 4 miles, for 200gs. 

1722. April 7. — Hunting Halls won a match against Mr. Tower's 

Woodcock, iost. each, 4 miles, for ioogs. 

1723. April 10. — Mule, iost, won a match against Mr. Morgan's Slug, 

iost. 61b., 6 miles, for ioogs. 

Mr. Frampton's horses lost or paid forfeit : 

His Beaten 17 19. April 11. — Spider lost in a match against Duke of Wharton's 

Horses from Chanter, 8st. each, 4 miles, for isogs. 

1719101727. October — . — Pints ran second in the King's Plate, won by 

Duke of Rutland's Brown Betty. 
October 30. — Gander, gst. 51b., lost a match against Duke of 

Wharton's Dangerfield, 8st. 3lb., 6 miles, for 50gs. 
November 4. — Hobler lost a match against Duke of Rutland's 

Commoner, 8st. 71b. each, 4 miles, for ^ogs. 
1720. March 10. — Hobler paid forfeit to Duke of Rutland's Commoner, 

in a match for i50gs., half forfeit. 
April 5. — Potatoe, gst. 41b., lost a match against Mr. Panton's 

Molly, gst., 4 miles, for ioogs. 
May 4.— Highlow lost a match against Sir R. Fagg's bl. 

Galloway, gst. 61b., 4 miles, for ioogs. 
May ai. — Potatoe, iost. ilb., lost a match against Lord 

Drogheda's Pickle Herring, iost., 4 miles, for ioogs. 
September 30. — Potatoe, 6st. I2lb., lost a match against Mr. 

Panton's d. g. Dun, a feather, 4 miles, for 5ogs. 
September 30. — Highlow, 7st, paid forfeit in a match against 

Mr. Panton's Dun, a feather, for 50gs. h. f. 
October 1. — Margaretta paid forfeit in a match, give and take > 

the lowest iost., against Duke of Rutland's Pudding, 4 miles, 

for isogs., 50gs. forfeit. 
October 1.— Highlow lost a match against Sir R. Fagg's ch. 

Galloway, give and take, the lowest 8st, 4 miles, for 200gs. 
October 13. — Potatoe lost a match against Lord Onslow's 

One-eye, 8st. 51b. each, 4 miles, for ioogs. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 117 

October 22. — Margaretta lost a match against Mr. Cotton's 

gray mare, 8st. 51b. each, 4 miles, for i5ogs. 
October 27. — Highlow lost a match against Lord Onslow's 

One-eye, 8st. 71b. each, one mile, for ioogs. 
November 5. — Highlow, 9st, lost a match against SirR. Fagg's 

ch. g., 8st., 4 miles, for 2oogs. 
October 22. — Spindleshanks paid forfeit in a match against 

Duke of Rutland's Pudding, 4 miles, for isogs., 50gs. 

November 5.— Sorrel filly lost a match against Duke of 

Rutland's gray filly, give and take, 4 miles, for ioogs. 

1 72 1. April 8. — Margaretta paid forfeit in a match against Duke of 

Devonshire's bl. c, give and take, 8 miles, for 200gs., h. f. 
October 2. — Dun, 7st. ulb., paid forfeit in a match against 

Mr. Panton's Molly, 6st, 2 miles, for 300gs., h. f. 
October 7. — Oysterfoot paid forfeit against Sir R. Fagg's b. h., 

7st. 131b. each, 4 miles, for 200gs., h. f. 
Highlow, 7st. 1 lib., lost a match against Mr. Panton's filly, a 

feather, one mile, for isogs. 
October 18. — Dun, 7st. ulb., lost a match against Mr. Panton's 

filly, a feather, one mile, for isogs. 
November 3. — Hobler, 9st, lost a match against Mr. Green's 

Stradler, 8st. 81b., 4 miles, for ioogs. 

1722. May 2. — Colt lost a match against Lord Milsintown's gelding, 

8st. 71b. each, one mile, for 200gs. 
October 27. — Miss Wassop, 8st., lost a match against Mr. 
Panton's Molly, 9st. 71b., 2 miles, for isogs. 

1723. March 23. — Miss Wassop, 8st, lost a match against Mr. 

Cotton's Fox, iost., 2 miles, for 200gs. 
May 1. — Mule, 8st, lost a match against Lord Hilsborough's 

Conqueror, 8st. 71b., for 200gs. 
1726. October 13. — Lesser mule, 9st., lost a match against Mr. Vane's 

gr. c. Costly, 9st. 71b., 6 miles, for ioogs. 
October 27. — Job, gst., paid a compromise in a match against 

Mr. Vane's Costly, gst. 41b., 6 miles, for ioogs. 
October 31. — Bigger mule, gst., lost a match against Mr. Vane's 

Costly, iost., 6 miles, for ioogs. 
November 1. — Mortimer, gst., lost a match against Captain 

Collyer's gr. c. Costly, gst. 71b., 4 miles, for isogs. 
November 2. — Mortimer paid forfeit to Costly, in a second 

match on the same terms. 


His Beaten 
Horses from 
171Q to 1727. 

118 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Saxton Hall. 


1727. March 10. — Job, gst, paid forfeit in a match against Lord 
Milsintown's gr. c. Costly, lost., 6 miles, for 200gs., h. f. 
March 24. — Mortimer, gst, paid forfeit in a match against 
Captain Collyer's Costly, gst. iolb., 6 miles, for i5ogs., h. f. 

Besides the preceding matches and races, Mr. Frampton ran : 

1 72 1. July 31. — York. Grey mare ran unplaced in the King's Plate. 
August 2. — York. Dark chestnut colt ran second in a plate 

of £40. 

1722. August 6. — York. Hip ran unplaced in the King's Plate. 



Mr. Frampton is said to have been considered a very 
eccentric person, remarkable for a peculiar uniformity in his dress, 
the fashion of which he never changed, and in which, regardless of 
its uncouth appearance, he would not unfrequently go to Court 
and inquire in the most familiar manner for his master or mistress, 
the King or the Queen ; and that Queen Anne used to call him 
Governor Frampton. He certainly was a conspicuous personage 
at Court on Twelfth Day, upon which festival the apartment of 
the Groom Porter was the scene of excessive gaming, and on 
those occasions "the Governor" was invariably "the greatest 
gainer" (the Flying Post, No. 573). 

It is unfortunate that all Mr. Frampton's critics were so 
palpably ignorant of racing laws and customs. One of these, in 
bearing testimony to his perspicacity in horseracing lore, says he 
could tell if a horse had broken knees or if it were broken winded •' 
Another, after describing the nobility and gentry at Newmarket 
races, descending " from their high dignity and quality to the 
picking of another's pocket, and biting one another as much 
as possible, and that with so much eagerness, it might be said 
they acted without respect to faith, honour, or good manners," 
designates Mr. Frampton as the oldest and cunningest jockey 
in England, who one day would lose 1000 guineas and the next 
day win 2000 guineas and so alternately. " He made as light 
of throwing away £$oo or ^"iooo at a time as other men of their 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 119 

pocket money, and was as perfectly calm, cheerful, and unconcerned 
when he lost ^"iooo as when he had won it." When this scribe left 
the betting-post he absurdly alludes to seeing the horses at exercise 
before " the grand day," when " they would exert their utmost 
strength as much as at the time of the race itself, and that to such an 
extremity that one or two of them died in the stable when they came 
to be rubbed down after the first heat." Yet this sort of incoherent 
rubbish has been preserved and reiterated and improved upon by 
Hawkesworth and his successors, even down to our own times. 

After having been a tenant, residing on the Cheveley estate 
for about fifty years, Mr. Frampton died, unmarried, in his 
"dwelling-house" there on March 12, 1727, in the eighty-sixth 
year of his age, and was buried exactly in the middle of the 
chancel on the steps before the altar in All Saints Church, New- 
market, where a mural monument of black and white marble, 
with a pyramid at the top, and on it an urn was erected to his 
memory. On the bottom part of the pyramid, on a marble 
shield, were his arms, viz. : Argent, a bend gules cottised 
sable. A greyhound sejant argent, collared gules. When this 
church was "renovated," about twenty years ago, "the King's 
pew," Mr. Frampton's monument, and all the memorial tablets in 
the interior were ruthlessly removed or destroyed. 

Saxton Hall 


His Death. 

A few more episodes in connection with the manor of Saxton- 
hall may be mentioned here. At a Court Baron held on Friday, 
June 25, 1742, Thomas Elder, Esq., chief steward thereof, pre 
siding, it was presented {inter alia) that "an antient peice of 
Plate or Silver Dish was found since the last Court held for this 
Manor lying hid and Buried in the Earth near a Barn held of this 
Manor by the Right Honble. William Lord Sundon, and now in the 
Occupation of ffrancis Buckle ; which belongs to his Grace the 
Duke of Somerset, Lord of the Manor of Saxtonhall, as Treasure 
Trove found within the same, And has been accordingly delivered 
by the said ffrancis Buckle for his Grace's use." 


Saxton Hall. 

The Turnspit's 

120 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

About this time Will Simonds, an eccentric " lad," who had 
for many years filled the once important office of turnspit at 
Cheveley Park, died, and was buried in Woodditton Churchyard, 
where a tombstone was erected over his grave bearing the following 
characteristic inscription : 



Who died March i, 1753. 
Aged 80 years. 
Here lies my corpse who was the man 
That loved a sop in dripping pan 
But now believe me I am dead 
Now here the pan stands at my head 
Still for sop to the last I cry'd 
But could not eat, and so I died 
My neighbours they perhaps may laugh 
Now they do read my epitaph. 

The dripping pan (said to be copper bottomed) is about 8in. 
by 5in., and is let into an excavated or chiseled out part of the 
tombstone on the apex of it between the four first words of the 
inscription. The original stone was accidentally broken on the 
occasion of a wedding party at Woodditton Church about twenty- 
five years ago. It was soon after removed, and the present stone 
substituted, in which the original dripping pan was placed ; and 
it was re-erected at the expense of a Miss Dobito, of Wood- 
ditton, and executed by Richard Arber, Newmarket. 


The notorious William Crockford was a tenant on the Cheveley 
estate, and amused himself with farming on new and scientific 
principles near The Links Steeplechase Course, where his labours 
in the role of Cincinnatus attracted numerous visitors between 
the years 1825 and 1840. Crockford's farm has been and still 
is celebrated for producing some of the best barley in England. 
During this period he also ran a gaming house at Newmarket, 
on the occasion of the race meetings there, as an adjunct of 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 121 

his celebrated club in St. James's Street, London. The former was 
situated near the centre of the town on the Cambridgeshire side of 
the High Street, and is now the well-known house of Lady Stamford. 
The spacious gardens in the rear of it were laid out with great taste, 
and embellished with valuable statuary, walks, and fountains.* 

Frampton's farmhouse was afterwards in the occupation of 
William Cripps Kitchener, Esq., who was Deputy Steward of the 
manors of the Cheveley Estate from 1835 to 1840, and Chief 
Steward from 1841 to February 27, 1886. He was uncle to Lord 
Kitchener of Khartoum and Aspall, co. Suffolk. 

Saxton Hall. 

Some of the customs appertaining to the manor are very 
interesting. In the reign of James I., playing at cards, dice, and 

* Various accounts are given of Crockford's rise to fortune and prosperity. It 
is said that on one occasion he, with his partner, Gye, won, after a sitting of twenty- 
four hours, the enormous sum of ^"100,000 from Lord Thanet and Lord Granville, 
Mr. Ball Hughes, and two others whose names are not recorded. Crockford's next 
partner was an expert gamester named Taylor. They set up a hazard bank, won a 
great deal of money, but quarrelled and separated at the end of the first year. 
Crockford removed to St. James's Street, had a good year, and, his rival having in 
the meantime failed, immediately set about building at No. 50, on the west side of 
the street, near White's, the magnificent clubhouse which was destined to become so 
terribly famous — a reputation notorious to gamesters throughout Europe in 1827. 
All the celebrities in England, from the Duke of Wellington to the youngest ensign 
in the Guards, hastened to enrol themselves as members, whether they cared for 
play or not. Card tables were regularly placed, and whist was played occasionally, 
but the great attraction was the hazard bank, at which the proprietor took his nightly 
stand prepared for all comers. At a single sitting four noblemen are said to have 
lost ^25,000 each. Others lost in proportion to their means. Indeed, it would be 
hard to say how many ruined families went to make Crockford a millionaire. His 
sensational death on the Derby Day of 1 844 caused much comment at the time, 
owing to his being the owner of Ratan, the second favourite. The race, however, 
resulted in a singular conclusion by the disqualification of Running Rein, the 
winner, who was proved to be a four-year-old. He retired in 1840, and died on 
May 24, 1844, in Carlton House Terrace, aged 69, having in a short time amassed 
something like j£ 1,200,000. After his death the clubhouse, the facade of which 
was taken from Wren's design of Newmarket Palace, was sold by his widow for 
.£2900. held on lease, of which thirty-two years were unexpired, subject to a 
yearly rent of ^"1400. The interior decorations alone cost ^"94,000. In 1849 
the club was re-opened for the Military, Naval, and Court Service, but was again 
closed in 1 85 1. It is now the Devonshire Club. 




122 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 




of the 
Court Baron. 

tables was forbidden. Transgressors had to appear before the 
Court Baron, but it does not transpire anyone was indicted 
thereat under those heads. At those assemblies the steward, or, 
in his absence, his deputy, presided. A jury was then sworn. 
The customary presentments were then submitted, viz. : The 
surrender of tenants in common, death of commoners, successor 
or next heir, lopping and topping of trees by persons contrary to 
the rights of the lord of the manor, definition of boundaries when 
any dispute arose. Horses, cows, or other cattle were not to go into 
the barley-field stubble till the parson cried "hawkey," on pain of 
the owners of the animals so transgressing forfeiting to the lord of the 
manor 6s. 8d., to the poor 6s. 8d., and to the pindar is. for each 
animal so trespassing. Dry cattle were not to go on the common 
between May Day and Lammas Day, except such as calved 
between May Day and Midsummer Day, under like penalties. 
Pigs were not to be turned into wheat or rye stubbles till the 
corn was carried away, under like penalties. Sheep were not to go 
into barley stubbles till All Saints' Day, nor into meadows or 
commons till St. Edmund's Day, and not to continue longer than 
Candlemas Day under like penalties. Cows were not to go, or to 
be led, to feed on the balks at any time, under like penalties. 
Horses were not to be stalked on the common, in the lanes, or on 
the balks in the fields, or any other place, till Lammas Day, 
under like penalties. Pigs were not to be turned into corn fields 
without ringing in the fields, and if any were found not ringed the 
pindar was to pound them, and cause them to be newly ringed, the 
owners of such pigs to pay the pindar for his trouble one penny for 
each pig, and also pay the poundage. Mares were not to go into 
the common fields on pain of the owners forfeiting for each mare 
6s. 8d. to the lord of the manor, 6s. 8d. to the poor, and is. to the 
pindar. Geese were not to be kept on the greens or commons on 
pain of the owners forfeiting 2s. 6d. to the lord of the manor, and 
id. each goose to the pindar. Sheep were not to be turned into 
rye-stubble fields till the parson cried " hawkey," on pain of the 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 123 

owners forfeiting 6s. 8d. to the lord of the manor, 6s. 8d. to the 
poor, and is. to the pindar. Balks not to be ploughed or dug up 
on pain of like forfeitures. Finally, the pindar for the ensuing year 
was sworn, and then the court adjourned. 

In September, 1762, a survey and valuation was made of the 
Cheveley Estate pursuant to a family settlement, from which we 
ascertain that Lady Granby's inheritance at the time comprised 
the manor of Cheveley, the manor of Newmarket (co. Cambridge), 
the manor of Newmarket (co. Suffolk), the manor of Ditton 
Valence, the manor of Ditton Camoise, the manor of Saxtonhall ; 
Stonehall, Moulton, Lydgate, Cropley Park, Owsden, Ashley, and 
the advowsons of Lydgate, St. Mary's Newmarket, and Ditton. 
Unlike the preceding survey, taken in 1689 (see p. 49), which 
gives the acreage, the live stock, the farms, houses, &c, we only 
get the gross and net value of the estate in the survey of 1 762 — 
the manor of Cheveley being as follows : — 

Cheveley seat and park 

A year's quit rent due to the manor ... 

A computation of fines arising out of this manor yearly 

John Tetsall, for the Hall or manor farm, 120 acres 

of land, town barn and close, Yaldock's close, 

Charville's close, and 16 acres and 3 roods of land 

James Pettit, for 13 acres of land 

Mr. Robert Bones, for the Warren, with house and land 

Hannah Crisp, widdow, for a cottage... 

Elizabeth Mortlock, widdow, for a messuage and lands 

in Cheveley, Saxon-street, and Woodditton 
John Tribrooke, for a farm and land purchased of 

Thomas Goodchild, for another farm, a parcel of 

land called Bothams, and another parcel of land 
Mark Balls, for the pasture ground called Southey 


The Rev. Mr. Harris, for pasture grounds near the 

Parsonage ... 
Benjamin Pavis, for a small piece of pasture ground 

Total of yearly rents 

R 2 



£ s. d. 

6 11 6 
6 11 6 






.7 6 





124 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Land tax and out-payments yearly : 

A year's land tax for Cheveley Park ... 

A year's window tax for ditto* 

Parochial payments for ditto, about ... 

A year's land tax for Cheveley Hall farm, &c. 

A yearly payment to the free school of Cheveley fo: 

the school lands lying intermixed among the 

lands of the Hall farm 
Deduct for a cottage charged at £i 5^. a\d., the rent 

being \2s. 6d., and for Tilbrooke's farm, being 

too high rented, £20 agreed and settled, in all... 

54 13 

Leaving a net yearly produce of £589 35-., exclusive of the pollards in 
Cheveley Park, estimated worth ^2oo.f 

The Masters of 
the Game. 

Before bringing the sporting and rural reminiscences of this 
estate to an end it may be remarked that the Royal Prerogative 
touching the game thereon, as enforced by James I. and Charles I., 
continued to be occasionally exercised in the reign of Charles II., 
and was nominally observed down to a comparatively recent 
period. As already shown, James I. appointed Sir Thomas 
Jermyn to the office — which was afterwards styled and officially 
designated — of " Master of the Game at Newmarket " and the 
circuit within the verge or liberties thereonto pertaining. In the 
reign of Charles I. we see Sir John Carleton invested with like 
powers (p. 23). Soon after the Restoration Sir Allen Apsley 
was appointed to fill the vacancy, and, although occasionally 
notices were issued calling attention to the sporting prerogatives, 
the claims of the Crown do not appear to have been strictly 

* In 1696 (eight years after the hearth tax was abolished) the tax on windows 
in houses was instituted. It was imposed upon every inhabited dwelling-house in 
England and Wales, except cottages, viz., for every house with less than ten 
windows, 2S. ; from ten to twenty, 2s. and 4s. additional, that is 6s. ; twenty or 
more, 2s., and &s. additional, that is 10s. The assessment was altered from time to 
time. What it was per window in 1762 we cannot say. 

f The timber on the entire estate was valued at /"8941. 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 125 

enforced.* Sir Edward Russell, Earl of Orford, was the next 
Master of the Game at Newmarket. When he died, in 1727, 
Charles, Duke of Grafton was appointed by a Royal Warrant, 
dated December 22, 1727; and Thomas Paton, Esq., on 
January 24, 1766. He held the appointment down to July 5, 1784, 
when we believe it was abolished. It was an honorary office in 
the sense of not bringing any direct stipend to those by whom 
it was held ; nevertheless they enjoyed, concurrently with it, 
other places of profit under the Crown. f They drew, how- 
ever, £60 a year for the wages of three under game keepers at 
Newmarket. \ 

As to the neglected state of Cheveley Hall and Park after 
the mansion was looted in December, 1688, and the sad events 
happening to its then owner, the once debonair Henry Jermyn, 
Lord Dover, it would appear (if we can rely on a statement made, 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century, by Sir Peter Le Neve, 
Garter King at Arms) that the demesne and house was not 
injured to the extent generally supposed. At that time Sir Peter 
drew up a sort of itinerary for the " direction of Sir John Percival, 
Bart., in his travels through the counties of Essex, Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Cambridge," in which he says : " Cheveley above 

* Hist. Newmarket, vol. ii., passim. 

f Mr. Thomas Panton was a groom of the Removing Wardrobe to George III., 
with a salary of ^"130 per annum, and keeper of the king's racehorses at Newmarket, 
for each of which he received ^"100 a year. 

% The liveries of the royal game-keepers at Newmarket, which were provided The 

by the royal wardrobe, was a separate charge, and apparently cost more than the Game-keepers' 
yearly wages of the men. Thus, in 1716, the bill for the liveries of the three under Liveries, 

gamekeepers at Newmarket included the following items : 13I yards of crimson 
grain cloth for coats and breeches, at i6.r. per yard, ^"11 2s. ; 27 yards of 
blue serge, to line the coats and for waistcoats, at 2s. gd. per yard, £1 i$s. \d.; 
1145 yards of broad gold arras lace, and 66f yards of narrow ditto, for coats, 
waistcoats, and breeches, and 5! yards of broad ditto, for hats, (total) troy 
weight 990Z. i2dwts., at 10s. per ounce, ^49 i(>s. Besides these there was 
Firman's bill for buttons : " four-cross basket campaign " and " large rich gilt 
breast buttons" are mentioned. The tailor's charge for making each suit was 
24J., and 19*. gd. each additional for trimmings. Their hats cost 39^. each, plus 
the gold lace, 

126 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Royal Visitors. 

George I. 

Queen Anne. 

Duke of 

New Market, the seat of Henry Lord Dover, second brother to the 
Lord Jermyn, is well built and furnished, though the mob were 
pleased, in the year 1688, to gut it, as the term was," and he 
recommends Sir John to pay it a visit during his " travels." At 
any rate it retained its celebrity among pilgrims interested in its 
historical associations, or attracted by the pastoral and sylvan 
scenery for which it was so conspicuous in the flat and treeless 
heaths by which it was, in those days, surrounded. Indeed, 
there were few persons of importance or culture sojourning 
at Newmarket for the races who did not pay at least a 
fleeting visit to Cheveley, where the Terrace — a miniature of 
the famous Terrace of St. Germain, from which it is said 
to have been designed — was the great attraction. And the 
vases on it, even to this day, are pronounced by experts to 
be unique, and valuable beyond price. William III. desired 
to see it, when he was at Newmarket during the Spring Meeting 
of 1698, but whether from a sentiment of delicacy or other 
pressing matters, he forewent the pleasure and paid a visit to 
Chippenham instead, where he had a staunch adherent in the 
person of his Master of the Game within the circuit of twelve 
miles, and also Treasurer of his Navy which ruled the waves 
within a circuit of the whole world. In October, 171 7, George I. 
went to Newmarket to see the races there, and to ascertain 
what the lucky place was like, where, at the October Meeting of 
1707, Queen Anne created him a Prince of the British Empire, 
and recognised him to be presumptive heir to her throne. One 
morning during this, his first sojourn at Newmarket, the King rode 
up to Cheveley and then went across to Chippenham to see his 
Master of the Game (as above) and Treasurer of his Navy (as 

William, Duke of Cumberland, who became a regular habitue 
at Newmarket, made his first appearance there during the Spring 
Meeting of 1753. " The Duke " (as he was styled by his contem- 
poraries) resided at the Palace during the race meetings, and it is 

Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 127 

said his favourite morning walk or afternoon ride was to Cheveley Cheveley. 
Park and back.* _ —^ 

In 1768 Christian VII. King of Denmark occupied the Denmark. 
Palace during the October Meeting. Accompanied by his suite 
and " chaperoned " — in the words of the intellingencer — by the 
beautiful and volatile Duchess of Ancaster, they paid a morning 
visit to Cheveley, where they spent some time in the Park, and 
are said to have admired it very much. Christian VII., as also 
his predecessor Christian IV. — who was likewise at Cheveley in 
July, 1 61 4 — were related by marriage to our Royal Family, the 
former having married the Princess Caroline Matilda, sister to 
George III.; the daughter of the latter, Anne of Denmark, was 
the Queen Consort of James I. These visits of the Danish Royal 
Family to Cheveley recall the fact that the manor once belonged 
to Canute the Great. 

Having already briefly referred to the estate when it belonged 
to the Manners' Family, it is therefore only now necessary to 
say, in conclusion, that, since 1890, Cheveley has been the 
residence of Mr. H. McCalmont, who purchased the property 
(which he had formerly held on lease) from the Duke of 
Rutland, in 1892. Mr. McCalmont was elected Member of 
Parliament for the Newmarket or Eastern Division of Cambridge- 
shire in 1895. It was at Cheveley that the great Isinglass, 
one of the best horses of the century, was foaled. His racing 
career may be epitomised in the words of. the tablet on the 

* Judging from the Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber of the Royal 
Household, there were elaborate preparations in making ready the Palace for the 
reception of the Duke of Cumberland during his sojourn there at the spring meeting 
of 1753, on which occasion the cost was ,£"268 \bs. 6d. The Duke does not 
appear to have attended the autumn meeting of that year, but he was in residence 
at the Palace at both meetings from 1754 to 1759, an< ^ at tne spring meeting 
of 1760, but absent at the October meeting in consequence of the death of his 
father, which occurred during that month; and he seems to have been present 
at all the meetings held there from 1761 to the year of his death, 1765, when 
the last entry in those accounts occurs : " for airing and getting ready H.M. Palace, 
at Newmarket, for the reception of the late Duke of Cumberland, in the year 1765, 
X91 «'■ 4</-" 

128 Sporting and Rural Records of the Cheveley Estate. 

Cheveley. picture of him, by Emil Adam, now hanging in the Jockey Club 

. ~ Rooms, as follows : 


This Picture was Presented by 

H. McCALMONT, Esq., M.P. 

to the Jockey Club to commemorate the Victories of 



1892, 1893, 1894, 1895. 
when he won the following races ! 

Derby Stakes, Epsom. 
St. Leger Stakes, Doncaster. 
Princess of Wales' Stakes. 
Eclipse Stakes, Sandown. 
Jockey Club Stakes. 

A Maiden Plate. 

New Stakes, Ascot. 

Middle Park Plate. 

Two Thousand Guineas Stakes. 

Newmarket Stakes. 

And the 
Ascot Gold Cup. 


Isinglass, by Isonomy — Deadlock, was bred at Cheveley by his owner, 

Mr. H. McCalmont. 

T. Loates, Jockey. J. Jewitt, Trainer. 

Painted by Emil Adam. 

After his racing career Isinglass was sent to the stud, and 
now stands at Cheveley in a box specially built for him. 

With the reproduction of the above picture we close this 




This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 



APR2 4 



General Library 

University of California